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Unit 8 Review

Chapter 23: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age – 1869-1896

Theme: Even as post–Civil War America expanded and industrialized, political life in the Gilded Age was marked by ineptitude, stalemate, and corruption. Despite their similarity at the national level, the two parties competed fiercely for offices and spoils, while doling out “pork-barrel” benefits to veterans and other special interest groups.

Theme: The serious issues of monetary and agrarian reform, labor, race, and economic fairness were largely swept under the rug by the political system, until revolting farmers and a major economic depression beginning in 1893 created a growing sense of crisis and demands for radical change.

Theme: The Compromise of 1877 made reconstruction officially over and white Democrats resumed political power in the South. Blacks, as well as poor whites, found themselves forced into sharecropping and tenant farming; what began as informal separation of blacks and whites in the immediate postwar years evolved into systematic state-level legal codes of segregation known as Jim Crow laws.

Define and state the historical significance of the following:

Ulysses S. Grant
Horatio Seymour
Jim Fisk
Jay Gould
Thomas Nast
Horace Greeley
Jay Cooke
Roscoe Conkling
James G. Blaine
Rutherford B. Hayes
Samuel Tilden
James A. Garfield
Chester A. Arthur
Winfield S. Hancock
Charles J. Guiteau
Grover Cleveland
Benjamin Harrison
Thomas Reed
William McKinley
James B. Weaver
Tom Watson
Adlai E. Stevenson
William Jennings Bryan
J. P. Morgan
Define and state the historical significance of the following: soft/cheap money
hard/sound money
contraction
resumption
Gilded Age
spoils system
crop-lien system
pork-barrel bills
populism
grandfather clause
“Ohio Idea”
the “bloody shirt”
Tweed Ring
Crédit Mobilier
Whiskey Ring
Liberal Republicans
“Crime of '73”
Bland-Allison Act
Greenback Labor party
Grand Army of the Republic (GAR)
Stalwart
Half-Breed
Compromise of 1877
Pendleton Act
Mugwumps
“Redeemers”
Plessy v. Ferguson
Jim Crow
Chinese Exclusion Act
U.S. vs. Wong Kim
“Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion”
Billion-Dollar Congress
People's Party (Populists)
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
McKinley Tariff

questions for discussion

1.Why did politics in the Gilded Age seemingly sink to such a low level? Did the Gilded Age party system have any strengths to compensate for its weaknesses?

2.Was the Compromise of 1877 another cynical political deal of the era or a wise adjustment to avoid a renewal of serious sectional conflict?

3.What were the short-term and long-term results of the “Jim Crow” system in the South? Why was the sharecropping system so hard to overcome? Were blacks worse off or better off after the Civil War?

4.Why was the political system so slow to respond to the economic grievances of farmers and workers, especially during the hard economic times of the 1890s? Were the Populists and others more effectively addressing the real problems that America faced, or was their approach fatally crippled by their nostalgia for a simpler, rural America?

makers of america: the chinese - Questions for Class Discussion

1.How was the Chinese immigrant experience similar to that of such European groups as the Irish (Chapter 14), and how was it different? What effect did the racial distinctiveness of the Chinese have on their experience in America?

2.What were the greatest problems the Chinese-Americans experienced? How did they attempt to overcome them?

Chapter 24: Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900
Theme: America accomplished heavy industrialization in the post–Civil War era. Spurred by the transcontinental rail network, business grew and consolidated into giant corporate trusts, as epitomized by the oil and steel industries.

Theme: Industrialization radically transformed the practices of labor and the condition of American working people. But despite...
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