Drug Overdose and Its Effects

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Drug Overdose
What is a drug overdose?
A drug overdose (OD) is where a person consumes an excessive amount of a drug and the body is unable to cope with it leading to certain overdose signs, symptoms and complications (acute toxicity/poisoning). The drug or its byproducts (as a result of drug metabolism) is toxic to the body, especially in large quantities associated with overdose, and may lead to death. An overdose may be accidental and this is frequently seen in addicts who require higher doses of a drug to yield the same effects as a result of tolerance that develops over time. An intentional overdose may be associated with an attempt to commit suicide. Types of Drugs

It is not uncommon for more than one type of drug to be used simultaneously and this may blur the clinical presentation of an overdose. The types of drugs that are most likely to be abused include : Stimulants

These drugs increase the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system and increase alertness, endurance and improve moods. Examples
Amphetamines
Methamphetamines (meth)
Cannabis
Cocaine
Ecstasy (MDMA)
Ephedrine
Pseudoephedrine
Phencyclidine (PCP)
Sedative hypnotics
These drugs depress the central nervous system (CNS) and are intended to reduce irritability, anxiety and induce a sense of relaxation and tranquility. Examples
Alcohol
Barbituates
Benzodiazepines
GHB (gammahydroxybutyrate)
Ketamines
Opioids
These drugs block the perception of pain by binding with opioid receptors and also induces a sense of euphoria (“high”). Examples
Codeine
Dipipanone
Heroin
Methadone
Morphine
Oxycodone
Pethidine
Tramadol
Signs and Symptoms of Drug Overdose (OD)
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Stimulants
oAnxiety
oInsomnia
oRestless
Sedative Hypnotics and Opioids
oConfusion
oHallucinations
oSlurred speech
oDrowsy
oUnconscious
Breathing
Stimulants
oRapid breathing
Sedative Hypnotics...
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