Drought in Marathwada

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Drought in Marathwada

By – Sukhraj Rajput Roll No: 34 TYBMM

Contain

* Introduction
* Definition of Drought
* Marathwada Fall to Drought
* Explanation of causes of Drought
* Features of Drought
* Impact of Globalization
* Deforestation
* Political View on Drought of Marathwada
* Recognize the Impact of Drought on agriculture, Livestock, economy, farmers, country, environment and society. * Organic Farming
* Design plan to mitigate Drought
* Hydroponic Farming
* Benefits of Hydroponic Farming :

INTRODUCTION Although Maharashtra is one of India’s most developed state, a large part of its population suffers from severe and chronic scarcity of water. The problem is not generally experienced or even realised in upper middle class enclaves of cities like Mumbai and Pune. However, as you move away from these privileged areas, women walking or standing in queues to collect water is a familiar sight across the state. In nearly 70% of the state’s villages (around 27,600 villages), water is either not available within 500 metres or is not available within 15 metres below the ground, or is not potableb. Around a fourth of the state’s rural households do not have secure access to drinking water and nearly half the rural households in the state do not get safe drinking waterd. Household surveys for World Bank projects indicate that average time spent in collecting water by rural households in Maharashtra is two hours a day; using ‘opportunity cost’ principles that translate into Rs 12 per household per daye. During summer, the time and cost increases assources dry up. Every year the state government spends around Rs 100 crore to supply water on an emergency basis to severely water-starved villages. The water problem causes enormous daily hardship to women and, coupled with poor sanitation facilities, leads to three kinds of health problems: ‘water wash’ ailments like conjunctivitis, caused by contact with poor quality water; diseases like dengue caused by water stagnation and waterborne diseases likediarrhoea, which is the leading cause of infant deaths. While India’s Millennium Development Goal Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) target is 28 per 1,000 by the year 2015, in many districts of Maharashtra such as Nashik, Jalna, Yavatmal, Buldhana,Chandrapur and Gadchiroli, IMR is above 75 per 1,000f.Shortage of water directly impacts livelihoods. Although Maharashtra is among India’s most urbanised states, Around 60% of its population still lives in rural areas. Even this figure is misleading, for urbanisation is heavily skewed towards the Mumbai region. In western Maharashtra and Vidarbha, around three-fourths of the population lives in rural areas, and in Marathwada, 85% of the population is ruralg.Poor surface irrigation:The Maharashtra Water and Irrigation Commissionconstituted by the Government of Maharashtra (GoM)in 1995 estimated that out of the state’s total cultivableland area of 22.54 million hectares, the area that could be brought under surface irrigation is 8.5 million hectaresk.However, at an aggregate investment of Rs 269 trillion since 1950 at current pricesl, area brought under Surface irrigation in Maharashtra is only 3.86 million hectaresm.Even this achievement is an exaggeration. Only 1.23 million hectares, or around a third of the potential created, is actually irrigated by canals; another 0.44 million hectares was irrigated by wells in command areas of irrigationprojectsn.Among other reasons, a GoM report lists the following ascauses for poor realisation of surface irrigation potentialo:• “Taking more percentage of crops that require morewater like paddy and sugarcane.”• Thin and scattered irrigation resulting in low efficiency.• Reduction in storage capacity due to silting.• Poor maintenance of infrastructure due to financialconstraints.•...
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