Water is the most valuable and indispensable resource for all forms of life. People need it for every activity: domestic use, agriculture and industry. Access to fresh water is regarded as a universal human right (United Nations Committee in Economics, Social and Cultural Rights, 2003). Drought has become an increasingly important problem in many parts of the world. Water scarcity is most common in arid and semiarid regions of the world, which cover one third of the Earth’s land surface (Smallwood, 2011). UNESCO and the Italian Ministry for the Environment and Territory (IMET) have launched “The Water Programme for Africa, Arid and Water Scarce Zones”, which seeks to develop the potential management of water resources to protect the fragile environment of water scarce regions. Additionally, limited fresh water resources available in these regions are also threatened with deterioration in quality due to hydrological changes. The accessible water in arid regions are often restricted to groundwater. Surface flows are usually limited to flash floods due to short duration and high intensity rainfall events. The purpose of this report to describe the feasibility of different techniques for providing fresh water to arid region, like Africa. Firstly, this report will consider the background to this problem and then it will compare and analyze two water provision methods in Africa, desalination and dams. Finally, this report will offer some recommendations.
Water is not only a physical resource: in every culture it is spread among social, spiritual, political and environmental meanings. So, solving the water problem means progress across all of these developments. This is mostly relevant in countries with no perennial rivers, streams, or permanent surface fresh water. Also, people in arid regions are uniquely vulnerable to economic and...