Answer the following in at least 100 words:
Describe the structure of DNA.
A molecule of DNA is made up of long chains of polymers and monomers called nucleotides. Those chains, two in particular that compose a strain of DNA, are formed by the grouping of nucleotides into polynucleotides. A nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group make up the composition of a nucleotide. In the case of DNA, the four nucleotides that are found along the chain of DNA are thymine (T), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and guanine (G). Those nucleotides are joined by their covalent bonds, more specifically the sugars and phosphates which compose the sugar-phosphate backbone of the polynucleotide.
How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype?
A person’s genotype comes directly from their genetic makeup, whereas a person’s phenotype relates directly to their physical attributes via protein development. The two are intertwined by the process of synthesis with transcription and translation. DNA is transcribed into RNA which then uses that DNA as a template to translate into a polypeptide forming the trait or attribute. Depending on the DNA or genotype, the RNA or phenotype is conversely related. The process of synthesis with the gene to a protein is based on a triplet code, or a three-base word called codons. These codons are the building blocks between DNA and RNA that make up the amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait.
The flow of information starts with transcription. Within transcription, the DNA molecule holds a nucleotide sequence called the promoter that the RNA polymerase attaches to and begins the RNA synthesis. Through the process of transcription, the RNA strand becomes longer and finally detaches from the DNA strand, wherein the two DNA strands come back together forming the previously continuous strand. At this point the RNA turns...
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