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Discuss how the six macro-environments (demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, and social/cultural) forces may affect the marketing of a drink or food company.

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Discuss how the six macro-environments (demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, and social/cultural) forces may affect the marketing of a drink or food company.

Companies and their suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customers, competitors, and publics all operate in a macro-environment of forces and trends that shape opportunities and pose threats. Within the rapidly changing global picture, the firm must monitor six major forces: demographic, economic, natural, technological, political-legal, and social-cultural. Although described separately, marketers must pay attention to their interactions, because these will lead to new opportunities and threats.

Demographic Environment

In the demographic environment, marketers must be aware of worldwide population growth; changing mixes of age; ethnic composition, and educational levels; the rise of nontraditional families; large geographic shifts in population; and the move to micromarketing and away from mass marketing.

Worldwide population growth: the world population is showing "explosive" growth, totaling 6.1 billion in 2000 and will exceed 7.9 billion by year 2025. A growing population does not mean growing markets unless these markets have sufficient purchasing power. Nonetheless, companies that carefully analyze their markets can find major opportunities.

Ethnic and other markets: countries also vary in ethnic and racial makeup. At one extreme is Japan, where almost everyone is Japanese; at the other is the United States, where people from come virtually all nations. Each group has certain specific wants and buying habits. Several food, clothing, and furniture companies have directed their products and promotions to one or more of these groups.

Pepsi-Cola: since there will be more older people and Pepsi-Cola has been traditionally a young people's drink, Pepsi will have to stimulate consumption by older members of the society. If Pepsi-Cola were to enter Japan, they may have...