* A model that explores how an individual or groups relative resilience to disasters is impacted by differences in access to the economic or political resources needed to secure a livelihood. * The strengths of the model are that it provides a broad view of vulnerability including root causes, it gives weight to natural hazards, and it provides a framework for looking at livelihoods and vulnerability. * The limitation of the model, is that it is a tool for explaining vulnerability, not for measuring it. The model cannot be applied operationally without a great deal of data collection and analysis. * Computer assisted techniques
* The use of computer software programs to automate steps of the risk management process. For example the use of GIS and remote sensing has allowed hazard mapping to become more comprehensive. * The limitations vary by technique; however in general there is a reliance on equipment and expertise, which may not be readily available in the communities undertaking the assessments which may widen the breach between the information produced by technical risk assessments and the understanding of risk by people. * Cost-benefit analysis
* A process used to select countermeasures, by balancing the costs of implementing each option against the benefits derived from it. In general, the cost of managing risks needs to be equal to the benefits gained from putting the countermeasures in place. * The benefit of this technique is the attempt to ensure public investment is directed toward those activities producing the greatest benefits for the best value for money. * The limitations of the technique include the lack of data collection and methods that are required to capture indirect and intangible costs and benefits, legal and social responsibility requirements may override simple financial cost benefit analysis, and the possibility that its application may disadvantage certain measures or people. * Disaster risk indexing
* A quantitative analysis technique that uses statistical indicators to measure and compare risk variables. * Benefits of the technique are efficiency in measuring key elements of risk, repetitive application of the indictor system may allow the monitoring of disaster risk reduction progress, and because the system can be applied rapidly and with little cost it is also a useful tool for the national level to identify risk exposed communities. * Limitations of the technique include the use of indicators that may not reflect the complex reality; local and sub-national databases are not currently using uniform data collection and analysis frameworks; lack of availability of data with a suitable coverage and accuracy; and while indexing allows a comparison of relative risk between geographic areas, it cannot be used to depict actual risk for any one area. * Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
* A policymaking tool that provides information on the environmental impacts of activities. * The benefits of an EIA are encouraging the private sector and individuals to consider the impacts of their actions on vulnerability factors; as part of a detailed risk assessment it can provide alternative solutions, and it could be used to reorient disaster impact assessments as planning tools. * Limitations of the technique include the current focus on post-event impact assessment and not promoting its use as part of the planning process, although the results can feed into future planning. In addition, there is still some way to go before EIA processes are fully mastered. * Event-tree analysis (ETA)
* A consequence based analysis in which an event either has or has not happened or a component has or has not failed. An event tree begins with an initiating event. The consequences of the event are followed through a series of possible paths. Each path is assigned a...