Direct and Indirect

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DIRECT AND INDIRECT
In this section, We are going to see How the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech and Indirect to Direct Speech is done? We may report the words of a speaker in two ways.
1. Direct Speech
We may quote the actual words of the speaker as it is. This method is called Direct Speech. 2. Indirect Speech
We may report what he said without quoting his exact words. This method is called Indirect Speech or Reported Speech. Example:
• Direct: Clinton said, “I am very busy now.”
• Indirect: Clinton said that he was very busy then.
• Direct : He said, “ my mother is writing letter.”
• Indirect: He said that his mother was writing letter.
How to change Direct to Indirect Speech?
It will be noticed that in Direct Speech, we use inverted commas to mark off the exact words of the speaker. In Indirect Speech we do not use the inverted commas. It will be further noticed that in changing the above Direct Speech into Indirect speech, certain changes have been made. Thus:

i. We have used the conjunction ‘that’ before the Indirect Statement. ii. The pronoun “I” is changed to “HE”. (The Pronoun is changed in Person) iii. The verb “am” is changed to “was”.
iv. The adverb “now” is changed to “then”.
Rules for changing Direct into Indirect Speech:
A. When the reporting or principal verb is in the Past Tense, all the Present Tenses in the Direct Speech are changed into Past Tense in the indirect Speech. a. A simple present tense becomes simple past tense.

Example:
• Direct : He said, “I am unwell.”
• Indirect: He said that he was unwell.
• Direct: “I know her address”, said John.
• Indirect: John said that he knew her address.
b. A present continuous tense becomes a past continuous.
Example:
• Direct : He said, “ my mother is writing letter.”
• Indirect: He said that his mother was writing letter.
c. A present perfect becomes a past perfect:
Example:
• Direct: He said, “I have passed the examination.”
• Indirect: he said that he had passed the examination.

d. As a rule the simple past tense in the Direct Speech becomes the past perfect tense in Indirect Speech. Example:
• Direct: He said, “His horse died in the night.”
• Indirect: he said that his horse had died in the night.
NOTE:
The shall of the future is changed into should.
The will of the future is changed into would.
The can and may of the future are changed into could and might respectively. Are you clear about the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? B. The tenses will not change if it is a universal truth.

Examples:
• Direct: The teacher said, “The earth moves around the sun.” • Indirect: The teacher said that the earth moves around the sun. C. If the reporting verb is in present tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change. For example, we may rewrite the above examples, putting the reporting verb in the present tense. Examples:

• Direct : He says, “I am unwell.”
• Indirect: He says that he is unwell.
• Direct : He says, “ my mother is writing a letter.”
• Indirect: He says that his mother is writing a letter.
• Direct: He says, “I have passed the examination.”
• Indirect: He says that he has passed the examination.
• Direct: He says, “His horse died in the night.”
• Indirect: he says that his horse died in the night.
Are you clear about the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? D. The pronouns of the Direct Speech are changed where necessary, so that their relations with the reporter and his hearer, Rather than with the original speaker are indicated. Examples:

• Direct: He said to me, “I do not believe you.”
• Indirect: He told me that he did not believe me.
• Direct: She said to him, “I do not believe you.”
• Indirect: She told him that she did not believe him.
• Direct: I said to him, “I did not believe you.”
• Indirect: I told him that I did not believe him.
• Direct: I said to you, “I do not believe you.”
• Indirect: I told you that I do not believe you.
E. Words expressing nearness in time...
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