A strike is the employees' temporary withdrawal of services, contrary to an employment contract. It is a formal form of industrial conflict that is usually organized by a trade union. (Trade unions are representatives of employment that ensure that employee working conditions and earnings are managed according to rule.) During typical strikes, trade unions ensure that there are no alternative means of getting the services that employees have refused to provide. A strike usually continues until management addresses the matter of dissatisfaction that caused it. Work-to-rule
It occurs when workers work strictly according to the legal terms of their contract. They deliberately refuse to make use of their initiative and act rigidly, like pre-programmed machines. For instance, a nurse may deliberately refuse to answer phone calls that are meant for doctors (since her terms of contract do not include phone-answering). A stenographer may ignore glaring grammatical errors in what her boss dictates to her (since, strictly speaking, her responsibility is merely to transcribe whatever her boss dictates to her). Since work-to-rule does not go against any formal terms of contract, it rarely brings punishment. However, it naturally slows down work progress. Absenteeism
It occurs when employees deliberately refuse to report to their workplace. Absenteeism is not always a sign of industrial conflict, since employees can fail to report to work due to injury or illness, for instance. Thus industrial-conflict absenteeism merely increases the loss of productivity and revenue that an organization suffers due to failure of workers to report for duty due to reasons of personal incapacity that they cannot help, such as illness. Sabotage
It occurs when employees deliberately damage their organization's production or reputation. This could take the form of...