NO: Joan Kelly-Gadol, from "Did Women Have a Renaissance?" in Renate Bridenthal, Claudia Koonz, and Susan Stuard, eds., Becoming Visible: Women in European History, 2d ed.
ISSUE 1. Did Homo Sapiens Originate in Africa?
YES: Christopher Stringer and Robin McKie, from African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity NO: Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari, from Race and Human Evolution Science researcher Christopher Stringer and science writer Robin McKie state that modern humans first developed in Africa and then spread to other parts of the world. Paleoanthropologists Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari counter that modern humans developed simultaneously in different parts of the world.
ISSUE 2. Were the Aryans Responsible for the Demise of the Indus Valley Civilization? YES: Stanley Wolpert, from A New History of India, 6th ed.
NO: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, from Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization Historian Stanley Wolpert states that the Aryan invasion of the Indus Valley did occur and that it played a role in the demise of the Indus Valley civilization. Archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer counters that there is little proof that the Aryan invasion occurred and that the decline of the Indus Valley civilization was due to internal environmental and social conditions.
ISSUE 3. Was Egyptian Civilization African?
YES: Clinton Crawford, from Recasting Ancient Egypt in the African Context: Toward a Model Curriculum Using Art and Language NO: Kathryn A. Bard, from "Ancient Egyptians and the Issue of Race," in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers, eds., Black Athena Revisited Clinton Crawford, an assistant professor who specializes in African arts and languages as communications systems, asserts that evidence from the fields of anthropology, history, linguistics, and archaeology proves that the ancient Egyptians and the culture they produced were of black African origin. Assistant professor of archaeology Kathryn A. Bard argues that although black African sources contributed to the history and culture of ancient Egypt, its civilization was basically multicultural in origin.
ISSUE 4. Was Sumerian Civilization Exclusively Male Dominated? YES: Chester G. Starr, from A History of the Ancient World
NO: Samuel Noah Kramer, from "Poet and Psalmists: Goddesses and Theologians: Literary, Religious, and Anthropological Aspects of the Legacy of Sumer," in Denise Schmandt-Besserat, ed., The Legacy of Sumer: Invited Lectures on the Middle East at the University of Texas at Austin Historian Chester G. Starr finds Sumerian society to be male dominated, from the gods to human priests and kings, and he barely acknowledges the status of women in either the heavenly or the earthly realm. Museum curator Samuel Noah Kramer relies on much of the same data as Starr, but finds powerful goddesses and earthly women to have played prominent roles in both cosmic and everyday Sumerian life.
ISSUE 5. Does Alexander the Great Merit His Exalted Historical Reputation? YES: N. G. L. Hammond, from The Genius of Alexander the Great NO: Ian Worthington, from "How `Great' Was Alexander?" The Ancient History Bulletin Professor emeritus of Greek N. G. L. Hammond states that research has proven that Alexander the Great is deserving of his esteemed historical reputation. Professor Ian Worthington counters that Alexander's actions were self-serving and eventually weakened his Macedonian homeland; therefore, he does not merit the historical reputation he has been given.
ISSUE 6. Did Christianity Liberate Women?
YES: Karen L. King, from "Women in Ancient Christianity: The New Discoveries," a Report From FRONTLINE NO: Karen Armstrong, from The Gospel According to Woman: Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in the West Professor of New Testament studies and...