Did Japanese Atrocities in the Philippines Have an Impact on the Uprising of the Philippine Guerrillas Movement After the American/Filipino Defeat in 1942?

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Extended Essay:

Did Japanese Atrocities in the Philippines have an impact on the uprising of the Philippine Guerrillas Movement after the American/Filipino defeat in 1942?

Subject: History

Candidate Number: 004812-013

Candidate Name: Armand Mendoza

Word Count: 3,971

Abstract

This essay focuses on attrocities commited by the Imperial Japanese Army during their occupation of the Philippines and the ramifications of these actions on the Guerilla movement. The Japanese occupied the Philippines from 1942 to 1945 during which time they committed countless attrocities against Filipino combatants and civilians alike. In World War II, there were certain milestones in Philippine history such as the Bataan Death March and other transgressions towards the local populus that are obscured to many people even today. Being a Filipino and having a grandfather who was deeply involved during the Japanese occupation in Zambales, Philippines during World War II, I felt compelled to investigate this period of Philippine History. I scrutinized a variety of sources to help better my understanding of Philippine World War II history, and focused my research question which asks, “Did Japanese Atrocities in the Philippines have an impact on the uprising of the Philippine Guerrillas Movement after the American/Filipino defeat in 1942?” In researching this topic I found many different resources, both primary and secondary, such as personal interviews, books in university libraries, museums, and online, with the majority being personal accounts of World War II veterans compiled into a novel. Living and growing up in the Philippines was also an advantage as visiting the actual site of the Bataan Death March, reading newspapers in museums written in Filipino, and interviewing Filipino war veterans in my native tongue was a much more feasible task. I hope this paper will give light to the misconduct of the Imperial Japanese Army to some extent, and acknowledge the subsequent rise of the Guerilla resistance that contributed tremendously to my country’s independence.

Word Count: 276

Table of Contents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………...4 I. Understanding Japanese Motivations………………………………………………………..............................6 II. The Bataan Death March………………………………………………………….....8 III. Treatment of POW’s in Camp O’Donnell and other Concentration Camps………..11 IV. Comfort Women in the Philippines…………………………………………………13 V. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..16 VI. Works Cited………………………………………………………………………....18

Introduction
During the earlier days of my childhood, my grandfather and I would spend a lot of time together. My grandfather was a World War II veteran as well as a member of the Philippine Resistance Movement after the Japanese Occupation in 1942 and because of the stories he would tell me as a child, I have always had a keen interest in that period of Philippine History.

Ten hours after the Japanese bombing on Pearl Harbour on December 7, 1941, the Japanese raided Camp John Hay in Baguio and Davao Gulf in the early morning of December 8, 1942. The Japanese main target was to destroy U.S. B-17 bombers in Clark Field Air Base, and by the end of the first day of war, General Douglas MacArthur’s air forces were reduced to less than half. This was the start of the Japanese Philippine Campaign (Jose).

The Japanese occupation of the Philippines had three main objectives. First, the Philippines was a part of their plan to form the “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” coined by Japanese Prime Minister Fuminaro Konoe in 1940, which initially aimed to free Asian countries from Western Powers to unite Asia therefore promoting “peace and prosperity” (Lebra). However, Japanese Nationalists saw it as a clear opportunity to gain resources and raw materials for war, and to manipulate local populations and economies for the benefit for a stronger and larger Imperial Japan. Second, the Philippines...
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