World War II: The American Experience
It is no known secret that America attempted to reframe from becoming a part of what was projected as being a major war which started with the European culture. Historians believe that the second war was a contribution of the Great Depression which caused for America to seize from their investments in Europe. This caused for a struggle of power in Europe which provide an opportunity for Hitler and Stalin to obtain control over Europe. However receiving control over Britain would become a challenge. The prime minister at that time knew in order to survive he would need an alliance; the United States. With Germany, Italy, and Japan seizing majority of Europe, President Roosevelt agreed to support Britain in the war in order to promote the “Four Freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom for want, and freedom for fear” (Schultz, 2012). With the booming of Pearl Harbor on December 7, President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war. Once war was declared and with Hitler also declaring war on the United States; this became the beginning of World War II.
North African Campaign
Figure 1. Allied Operations in World War II, 1942-1945
American troops entered into North Africa in late 1943. The North African Campaign, better known as the Desert War, took place in North African desert which surrounded those areas of Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the Western Sahara (United States History, 2012). After the Axis (name given for the Germane, Italian, and Japanese) were defected in France, Northern Africa became the focus of conquering. It is stated that the North African Campaign was fought for not only one reason but for two reasons. The Suez Canal was the first objective to gain control over for the reason that the Suez Canal will be the source of controlling the Middle East. The second objective for the North African Campaign was the Middle East oil supply and resources. Egypt was a main focus due to the location in which was at the center of the Eastern Mediterranean, Abyssinia, and the Middle East (United States History, 2012). Operation torch was lead by General Bernard Montgomery. During operation torch, British troops were in Egypt fighting the Germany’s while American troops launched an invasion of French North Africa (United States History, 2012). The objective for operation torch was to gain control of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia which were all under the French dictatorship. By having control, the Allies (Britain, Soviet Union, and the United States) wanted to push the Axis out of Africa. The Allies were successful. “On May 12, 1943, the last organized Axis army force in Africa surrendered. The Allies had killed, wounded, or captured about 350,000 Axis soldiers, and had suffered about 70,000 casualties. After the victory in the North African Campaign, the stage was set for the Italian Campaign to begin” (United States History, 2012).
Figure 2. The Pacific and Adjacent Theaters, 1942-1945
At the Casablanca Conference held in Casablanca, Morocco in January 1943; the decision was made to invade Italy. The Allies had their first war conference to discuss the invasion. This launched the Italian Campaign which placed Allied soldiers on the mainland in Europe. The Italian Campaign consisted of five objectives: to “capitalize on the collapse of Italian resistance, make immediate use of ready Allied strength, engage German forces that might otherwise be used in Russia and northern France, secure airfields from which to intensify the bombing of Germany and the Balkans, and gain complete control of the Mediterranean” (United States History, 2012). D-Day; Normandy landings was the Operation Husky. During this operation, Allies landed on the beaches while leading the Germans to thinking that they would attack Sardinia and Corsica. Due to the bombing in Rome, the head of the...