Diabetic Teaching Plan for Ellen B.
Ellen, this teaching plan is being formulated for you as a guide to introduce you and your family to the Diabetes Mellitus disease process, complications associated with it, and the main tool for you to learn to keep yourself healthy and your diabetes under control. One of the most important things to remember is that diabetes can affect every body system, your heart, your kidneys, your eyes, and your blood vessels, not just your “blood sugar” level. Knowledge of this will help you learn how to manage your symptoms and promote your over-all health. At the end of this plan, I will provide you with some valid websites and organizations that can give you additional information to expand your knowledge base.
Type I Diabetes
* This type of diabetes accounts for only 5% to 10% of the diabetic population. It is a condition in which a high blood sugar level results from your body not producing enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that allows the body to absorb glucose (sugar), and glucose, in turn, is converted to energy. If the body cells do not absorb the glucose, the glucose accumulates in the blood, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). This can lead to many medical complications. * The reasons for diabetes occurring could be genetic predisposition, environmental factors, or a defect in your immune system. * Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life threatening complication of diabetes which you had on arrival to the hospital. This is often the first symptom of undiagnosed diabetes and caused by an absolute lack of insulin in your body. Treatment for DKA requires medical intervention.
* Early signs of DKA:
* Feeling tired or fatigued
* Excessive thirst and/or excessive urination
* Signs of dehydration such as dry mouth
* Later signs of DKA:
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Rapid, deep labored breathing
* Breath that smells fruity
Many of your day to day decisions affect your blood glucose levels, such as the taking of your insulin, your food choices, and your activity levels. Management with Diet
There is a direct relationship between carbohydrates and your blood sugar. Your body turns carbohydrates into glucose. Eating the right amount of carbohydrates at each meal will help keep your blood glucose levels closer to the normal range. The dietician will assist you in meal-planning and will provide sample menu-planning for you, along with a list of “good” and “bad” carbohydrates. You will need to read labels on cans and boxes of food as you will be administering Humalog insulin 0.5 units per 15 Gm of carbohydrates at each meal. Monitoring carbohydrates remains a key strategy in achieving glycemic (sugar) control, according to the ADA. The very best sources of carbohydrates are raw or lightly steamed vegetables, most raw fresh fruit, beans, legumes, nuts and seeds, and high fiber 100% whole grains. Carbohydrates such as pastries, sugary sodas, white breads and white rice are usually absorbed into your blood stream more quickly and are considered “bad” carbohydrates. They can cause blood sugar problems and contribute to weight gain. If you choose to use alcohol, daily intake should be limited to a moderate amount, such as one drink per day for an adult woman. (ADA, 2007)
Monitoring Your Blood Sugar
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that you monitor your blood glucose 3 or more times daily since you will be administering multiple injections to yourself (ADA, 2007). It is important to know the normal blood glucose levels
* Before meals: 70mg/dL to 130 mg/dL
* 1 to 2 hours after meals: lower than 180 mg/dL
Other than blood glucose levels that you can monitor, your physician will order a blood test called A1C. The result of this blood test will provide information about the average amount of...
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