Understanding the care and management of Diabetes
Assessment 1.1 Understand the function of glucose in the blood 1) 1.1 Explain what ‘blood glucose’ is:
Blood glucose is glucose in the blood stream. Glucose comes from eating and digesting carbohydrates. 2) 1.2 Describe the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates: Carbohydrates that break down rapidly during digestion are known as simple carbohydrates because they rapidly release glucose into the blood stream. Carbohydrates that break down slowly are known as complex carbohydrates because they slowly release glucose into the blood stream. 3) 1.3 Define the term ‘glycaemia’:
Glycaemia is the presence of glucose (sugar) in the blood
4) 1.4 Define the term ‘hypoglycaemia’:
Hypoglycaemia is a condition that arises when a person has a low level of blood glucose (less than 3.5mnol/L 5) 1.3 Define the term ‘hyperglycaemia’:
Hyperglycaemia is a condition that arises when a person has an abnormally high level of blood glucose. 6) 1.4 Describe what ‘pre-diabetes’ is:
Pre-diabetes is a precursor to type 2 diabetes. There are no signs and symptoms-an individual simply has elevated glucose levels., but these blood glucose levels are not quite high enough to be considered full diabetes. Pre-diabetes is initially managed with a healthy diet and exercise. 7) 1.4 What are the two pre-diabetic states:
a) Impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG)
b) Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
Assessment 1.2 Understand the function of insulin in the blood 1) 2.1
Which organ in the body produces insulin:
The pancreas produces insulin.
2) 2.1 Describe how insulin is produced:
Insulin is produced by the pancreas. The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes. These enzymes help to break down carbohydrates, protein and fat in the small intestine. The pancreas produces several hormones-including glucose and insulin. 3) 2.2 Explain how insulin affects blood glucose levels:
When you eat, insulin is realised into the bloodstream where it helps to move glucose from the food you have eaten into cells to be used as energy. People who have diabetes produce little or no insulin therefore they need to replace or increase insulin levels artificially, in order to and glucose regulation in the blood. 4) 2.3 Describe what ‘insulin resistance’ means:
Insulin resistance is the inability of the body to recognise and use insulin adequately. If a person develops “insulin resistance” they lose the ability to control blood glucose effectively and therefore have abnormal levels of blood glucose and insulin. Insulin resistance is a key indicator of type 2 diabetes. Assessment 1.3 Understand the different forms of diabetes
1) 3.1 Describe what is meant by the term ‘diabetes’:
Diabetes occurs when a person has too much glucose in their blood . Insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates blood glucose. Diabetes occurs when to little or no insulin is produced or when the body is unable to use the insulin correctly. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1: The pancreas has stopped producing insulin.
Type 2: Because of insulin resistance, or reduced insulin.
2) 3.2 Outline the key features of type 1 diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes can develop at anytime, it usually develops in people under 30. It is unknown how the condition happens, but it is thought to occur when the body’s immune system fails and produces an autoimmune response. In type 1 diabetes insulin production has stopped, therefore injections of insulin are needed. 3) 3.3 Outline the key features of type 2 diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes usually develops in people over the age of 40. However nowadays due to childhood obesity it can occur in younger adults and children. In type 2 diabetes insulin production is reduced or there is a resistance to it. Diet and exercise, medication (oral or injections) and injections of insulin are all key factors for this type. 4) 3.4 Explain what causes type 1...
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