Diabetes Mellitus is a condition in which the amount of glucose or sugar in the
blood is too high. Glucose comes from the digestion of starchy foods such as sweets,
rice, potatoes and bread. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes the
destruction of pancreatic beta cells, the cells in the body that make the hormone insulin.
Insulin is required for people to get energy from food, therefore, people with type 1
diabetes must take multiple injections of insulin each day or continually infuse Insulin
through an insulin pump in order to survive. They must monitor their blood glucose
levels closely with frequent blood testing throughout the day and night and adjust their
insulin levels, food intake, and amount of exercise accordingly. Even with the most
vigorous attention, many other factors can adversely affect a person's blood glucose
levels, including stress, hormonal changes, growth spurts, medications, illness, and
fatigue. The management of this disease is a constant battle, not only for the patients, but
also for their families and loved ones. Low glucose caused potentially deadly medical
emergencies such as seizure and coma, while high glucose causes debilitating and
sometimes fatal health problems such as kidney failure, blindness, nerve damage,
amputation, heart attack, stroke and pregnancy complications. The main symptoms of
diabetes are thirst, having to go to the bathroom frequently especially at night, tiredness,
weight loss and blurred vision. (Goldstein, Robert Fighting Diabetes, Ebsohost V.
Library 2011). Type 1 diabetes strikes in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood:
but, it is not a disease you can outgrow. The prevalence of diabetes in the United States
was 13.7% among men and 11.7% among women greater than 30 years old. (Goodarz,
Daniel, & Murray Christopher (2009, July 16). Diabetes prevalence and diagnosis in the
United States. Some of the precipitating factors of diabetes are family history. Anyone
with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a risk of developing this condition.
Genetics the presence of certain genes indicates an increase risk of developing type 1
diabetes. Environmental exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, Coxsackie virus, mumps virus
may trigger the autoimmune destruction of the islet cells, or the virus may directly infect
the islet cells. (Mayo Clinic staff (2011) Healthcare workers are responsible for the
execution of the health policy of a nation. Studies has revealed pertinent information on
the perception of healthcare workers about healthy life style, health choices and general
perception of residents. In the U.S. smoking, obesity, overweight, high cholesterol,
sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy lifestyle practices, and low socioeconomic status increased
the risk of hypertension and diabetes. (Bourne, Paul A. (2010) Ebsohost V Library.
patients should be advised to eat a balance, healthy diet, with the carbohydrates making
up about 45-60% of energy intake and total fat making up less than 35% of energy intake.
People with diabetes should be advised not to drink alcohol on an empty stomach because
it can interfere with blood glucose control. Physical actitivity should be encouraged.
Patients need to learn to adjust their diet and insulin doses according to their exercise to
avoid low blood glucose. (Hill, J. (2007) Treating Type 1 Diabetes. In primary care
Ebsohost V Library for most ethnic minority groups, discussion of cultural dynamics. In
healthcare, intersects with issues of poverty and equity, including access to utilization of
healthcare. In the native american community, many of them have diabetes. They eat
alot of refined flour, cheese, lard and refined sugars. The recent conceptualization of
fried bread as a traditional native American food, is largely a result of the commoditities
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