Developmental Psychology

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Supporting Teaching and
Learning in Schools

Unit 2.1
Child and young person development

Caroline White

Assessor: Mandy Lewis

TLC4417

Introduction
Child development is used to refer to the ways in which children and young people grow and change. Development occurs in an order or sequence and as practitioner it is essential I know about these sequences so that the expectations about what a child/young person can do are realistic, appropriate experiences and activities can be provided, experiences and activities can be offered that lead a child/young person on to the next stage of development and so children/young people’s individual progress can be monitored against the developmental sequence. In this Unit I will show my understanding of children/young people’s development. All the information within this unit I have found in the supporting teaching and learning in school hand book, sourced from the internet and from my own knowledge.

Learning Outcome 1
Physical development can be broken down into 4 areas: fine motor skills, gross motor skills, general coordination and hand eye coordination. This chart shows the expected physical development of children/young people from 0-19 years of age and includes all the 4 areas of physical development. I have tried to show the order in which the physical development will change within the age group in order, but this will indeed vary from child to child.

Age| Physical Development|
0-3| * Dependant on reflexes, sucking, grasping, * Rolling * Teething * Crawling * Basic fine motor skills * Feeding themselves * Hand eye co-ordination * Sitting up * More controlled movement * Pointing * Walking * Holding Small objects * Dressing themselves * Climbing * Playing with a ball * Using pencils & crayons * Turning pages * Holding cups and cutlery * Walking with more confidence and running * Jumping * Riding a bike| 3-7| * Better co-ordination * Unbutton buttons * Uses zips * Self help skills will have improved * Washing own hair, Brushing teeth * Refining all the skills developed so far * More control over fine motor skills * Cutting, Writing, Drawing, Swimming, Skipping, Jumping ropes * More confident balance * Balance on one foot for 10 seconds * Running, Hopping, Kicking a ball, Catch balls, Throw balls * Using larger equipment * Tying shoe laces| 7-11| * Refining all the skills learnt so far * Controlled finer movements * Sewing * Playing Instruments * Hand writing * Colouring within the lines * Hobbies & Interests (Sports/Dance) * Early signs of puberty may start to begin (mainly girls)| 11-14| * Physically stronger * Hormonal * Signs of puberty in boys may start to begin * More interaction between boys and girls * Play more refined sports * Well developed fine an gross motor skills| 14-19| * Many girls finished the process of puberty * Boys will be well into puberty * Changing in boys voices * Body hair * Acne * Sexual awareness and desires * Rapid growth in height and weight may cause lack of coordination * Muscles fill out * Increase in appetite increases * Need sleep * Sweating increases|

Physical development is extremely fast within the first 3 years. They have little control over their bodies and movements but have the basic start to physical development and all the skills learnt within the first 3 years become more refined and developed in the next 16 years. Each child is very unique and will develop in their own time. This chart shows a broad average of the milestones expected to be reached at each. There may be circumstances that affect a child’s development such as being a premature baby, the upbringing of the child, illness, disability, etc. If children’s growth patterns are too different from the chart it may show signs of some underlying problem and may affect the child’s behaviour....
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