According to studies there has been an increase of unprotected intercourse in adolescents that leads to sexually transmitted diseases, psychological disorders, and the use of substance abuse (Jemmott, Fong, G. T. (2005)). Adolescents typically go to the use of drugs to throw away the feelings they encounter in everyday situations. Studies also show that most adolescents that involve their selves in intercourse at an early age will have a larger number of sexual partners, and use condoms less often when engaged in intercourse. Objective
The purpose of this paper is to show the comparisons between harm avoidance, and reward dependence, and risky sexual behaviors. Along with showing how African American Adolescents background factors in drug use and HIV sexual risk behaviors affect their everyday lives (Deykin, E et al.,2005). Adolescent Risky Sexual Behaviors is defined as the inconsistent or non-use of condoms, inconsistent or non-use of other contraceptive. Evidence has shown that these behaviors could lead to conduct disorder by the DSM-III-R. It showed arguments or fights, hurting someone badly, serious fights, shop lifting, etc. By doing several studies it will determine the relevance from sexual behavior to other problems that could be associated with it. Surveys of Literature
According to Angela and Stallings (2006b) there has been a tremendous increase of sexually transmitted diseases which includes infections as in (HIV) and unplanned pregnancy. Adolescent risky sexual behavior from applied health psychology (Bryan et al, 2006) says there is little research on looking how early behaviors underlie personality dimensions that could result in risky sexual behavior. There has been a theory stating that risky sexual behavior is due to substance abuse by Cloningers (TPQ) Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. For instance the inability to show inappropriate behavior is being excluded by impulsive personality traits, as well as externalizing psychopathology such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Cloningers TPG was designed to measure three dimensions of personality, each theoretical associated with the function of a particular neurotransmitter (Nelson and Cloninger, 2005). The three dimensions of personality that he described is the (NS) Novelty-Seeking which is the tendency to excitable, exploratory, enthusiastic, and impulsive, (HA) Harm Avoidance which is the tendency to be cautious, tense, and apprehensive when confronted with new or dangerous situations, and (RD) Reward Dependence is a tendency to be warm, sensitive, and dependent. Cloninger’s focus was on alcohol abuse, and he showed that personality traits distinguish different patterns of behavior, neurophysiologic and neuropharamological responses to alcohol. The loss of drinking is associated with people of passive dependent or anxious personality. Cloninger described some people as Type II alcoholics as being more likely to have problems by age 25, and show more aggression and violence related problems, more auto accidents and arrest for reckless driving. When compared to risky sexual behaviors this has not been examined within the (TPQ) but it is implied that they will have the same Type II personality.
Bryan and Stallings (2006b) also talked about there was a study given on cognitive, psychiatric, and sociodemographic assessments that included both structured diagnostic interviews and self report. This consisted of adolescents that volunteered to participate in a study. They were all given a $20 stipend to participate and a 30 page questionnaire booklets. Along with Risky Sexual Behavior also known as (RSB) typically asked two questions on sexual intercourse “How often have you engaged in sexual intercourse in the past year, that is, how many different times?”, and “When you engage in sexual intercourse, do you make sure that some type of birth control or contraception...