Picking out an inter-governmental organization is no walk in the park; a person must have an overall arching topic that interests the individual. For me I have always been interested in human rights and how there are so many countries in violation but nothing is being done about it. I will be looking into the United Nations Human Rights Council. This paper will analyze various aspects of an inter-governmental organization called the United Nations Human Rights Council by looking at why global governance is necessary to deal with this issue, what current work is being done on the issue, policies and laws current in effect, what countries are playing lead roles in finding solutions, and proposals I have made to deal with the issues.
Before getting into the substance of the paper there needs to be a basic understanding of what the United Nations Human Rights Council is and what the council does. The United Nations Human Rights Council was designed to strengthen the promotion and protection of human rights around the world and addressing human rights violations where ever the violations occur (UNHRC). The United Nations Human Rights Council meets at the United Nations Office in Geneva, Switzerland. There are currently 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the United Nations General Assembly (UNHRC). The United Nations Human Rights Council replaced the former United Nations Commission on the Human Rights. The new Human Rights Council was created on March 15th, 2006 by resolution 60/251. The first session took place over 11 days in June of 2006 and one year later the council adopted the “Institution-Building Package” which set up the procedures, mechanisms of the council and to give guidance to the work being completed. One of the most important mechanisms was the Universal Periodic Review (UNHRC). That allows the Human Rights Council to assess the human rights situations in all United Nations Member States. The Advisory Committee serves as a think tank providing the committee with expertize and advice on human rights issues. There is also the Complaint Procedure which allows individuals and organizations to bring up human rights violations to the council. The Human Rights Council works with the United Nations Special Procedures to monitor, examine and advise and publicly report human rights issues for specific countries (UNHRC)
The previous paragraph talks about the United Nations Human Rights Council deals with human rights violation from across the world and human rights violations is the topic I would like to discuss in this paper. According to Amnesty International, Human Rights are defined as “basic rights and freedoms that all people are entitled to regardless of nationality, sex, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, language or other status”. Human rights include both civil and political rights such as the right to life, liberty and freedom of expression. There are also social, \cultural and economic rights which include but are not limited to the right to participate in culture, right to food, and the right to work and receive an education. Human rights are protected and upheld by international and national laws and treaties. I will look at human rights as the overarching topic. Then I would like to look at use of arms specifically cluster munitions, incendiary weapons and landmines. A cluster munitions is an air-dropped/ground-launched explosive weapon that releases smaller sub munitions over a wider area which can pose a risk to civilians both during and after an attack (Problem). Incendiary weapons are bombs that are designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine triflouride or white phosphorous (("Rule 85. The Use of Incendiary Weapons against Combatants"). Land mines are concealed explosive devices under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets as they pass over or near the...