Determination of the Equilibrium Constant for an Esterification

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BACKGROUND:
Esterification is a reaction that combines an alcohol with an organic acid, with a water molecule is being taken out, and an ester is formed. A concentrated acid catalyst speeds up the esterification. In this experiment set up, sulphamic acid was used, as it is a solid acid and be added dry, without any water, which is a reactant in this experiment equilibrium. Esterification is a slow and reversible reaction. The equation for the reaction between an acid RCOOH and an alcohol RẬᶦ can be the same or different; at equilibrium, the concentrations of both reactants and products are constant. In this experiment set up, the reaction between ethanoic acid and ethanol to produce ethyl ethanoate and water is a reversible reaction as shown by the following equation:

CH₃COOH + CH₃CH₂OH↔CH₃COOCH₂CH₃ +H₂O
The Equilibrium Law states that at equilibrium the ratio [CH₃COOCH₂CH₃][H₂O]/[CH₃COOH][CH₃CH₂OH] is constant at constant temperature. This , Kc, is called the equilibrium constant for the reaction. AIM: To verify the Equilibrium Constant for an Esterification Reaction. MATERIALS/APPARATUS USED:

Glacial ethanoic acid50 cmᵌ pear shaped single neck flask Ethanol condenser
Ethyl ethanoateburette
Distilled waterconical flask
Sodium hydroxide solutionmicro burner
Phenolphthalein solution as indicator
Sulphamic acid in solid form
Anti- bumping granules

METHODS:
TABLE 1 SHOWING INITIAL MIXTURES
EXP. NO.VOLUME OF GLACIAL ETHANOIC/CMᵌVOLUME OF ETHANOL/CMᵌVOLUME OF ETHYL ETHANOATE/CMᵌVOLUME OF WATER/CMᵌ 13205
22305
32404
44504

From experiment 1 from the above table, 3 cmᵌ of glacial ethanoic acid and 2 cmᵌ of ethanol were mixed into a clean, dry 50cmᵌ pear shaped single neck flask and the results of the exact volume were recorded. 1.50g was weighed and transferred, quantitatively into the pear flask. The weighing was recorded as well as. Then some anti-bumping granules were added to the...
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