Mat No: NS/MAT/09/1289
1. Definition of A.I
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents “where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines. There are many definitions of AI. The basic objective of AI is to represent humans' thought processes in computers. These machines are supposed to exhibit behavior that, if performed by a human being, would be considered intelligent. An alternate definition, not covered in the text is by Astro Teller: Artificial intelligence (AI) is the science of how to get machines to do the things they do in the movies." On the other hand Wallace Marshal states that "Artificial stupidity (AS) may be defined as the attempt by computer scientists to create computer programs capable of causing problems of a type normally associated with human thought." (Both these definitions appear in Kurzweil, R., The Age of Spiritual Machines, NY: Penguin Books, 1999, p. 66.)
2. Explain The Types of A.I with examples:
List of types of A.I
• Computational A.I: The study of adaptive mechanisms to enable or facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments. As such, computational intelligence combines Examples like artificial neural networks, evolutionary computing, swarm intelligence and fuzzy systems”. • Knowledge based A.I: A computer system that draws on AI techniques or knowledge bases for its operation. Examples include expert systems and neural networks • Hybrid A.I: Hybrid intelligent system denotes a software system which employs, in parallel, a combination...