To What Extent is Culture a Driver of or a Constraint to Globalization?
Cavusgil, Knight and Riesenberger define globalization of markets as the ongoing economic integration and growing interdependency of countries worldwide (2008, 4). From an economic point of view, globalization is reduction in, or removal of, foreign trade barriers in order to facilitate the flows of goods across borders (Leidner 2010, 1). Cultural globalization takes a more anthropological point of view, and refers to “a phenomenon by which the experience of everyday life, as influenced by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, reflects a standardization of cultural expression around the world” (Britannica Encyclopedia). Former United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan once said “It has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the law of gravity” (September 2000). The last decade globalization has moved even faster, and ICT has created the possibility of one global culture. Internet and TV are removing the former cultural boundaries, and the jet industry has made it easy to get anywhere in the world at almost no time. Global companies like McDonald’s and Coca Cola are practically everywhere and many people seem to love to have the opportunity to get standardized products all over the world. But the tendency of these companies to promote western ideals of capitalism (Global Policy) has spawned much debate about the globalization – or Americanization as many would like to call it – process that take place in today’s societies. Positive and Negative Aspects of Globalization on Culture
One positive aspect concerning globalization and culture is that globalization leads to a similarity in culture and language among countries, and therefore provides the basis for mutual understanding and cooperation (Cavusgil, Knight and Riesenberger 2008, 240). Better communication among countries will promote greater acceptance and a broader vision. As communication increases...
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