Critical Thinking and Debate

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Argumentation and Debate
Critical Thinking for Reasoned Decision Making
TWELFTH EDITION

AUSTIN J. FREELEY
Late, John Carroll University

DAVID L. STEINBERG
University of Miami

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Argumentation and Debate: Critical Thinking for Reasoned Decision Making, Twelfth Edition Austin J. Freeley, Late David L. Steinberg Publisher: Lyn Uhl Executive Editor: Monica Eckman Assistant Editor: Kimberly Gengler Editorial Assistant: Kimberly Apfelbaum Associate Technology Project Manager: Jessica Badiner Marketing Manager: Erin Mitchell Marketing Assistant: Mary Anne Payumo Associate Content Project Manager: Jessica Rasile Art Director: Linda Helcher Production Technology Analyst: Jamison MacLachlan Print Buyer: Susan Carroll Permissions Editor: Mardell Glinski-Schultz Production Service: Newgen Cover Designer: Ke Design Cover Image: © Imagemore Co., Ltd.

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Library of Congress Control Number: 2007941012 ISBN-13: 978-0-495-09590-3 ISBN-10: 0-495-09590-7 Wadsworth Cengage Learning 25 Thomson Place Boston, MA 02210 USA

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To Dr. Austin J. Freeley and Trudy. David L. Steinberg


Brief Contents

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9

Critical Thinking

1 19

Applied and Academic Debate Stating the Controversy 43 60 86

Analyzing the Controversy Exploring the Controversy Evidence 105 126

Tests of Evidence

The Structure of Reasoning Types of Reasoning 169

152

Chapter 10 Obstacles to Clear Thinking Chapter 11 Requirements of the Case

188 204 214

Chapter 12 Building the Affirmative Case Chapter 13 Building the Negative Case Chapter 14 Refutation iv

235

261

BRIEF CONTENTS

v

Chapter 15 Presenting the Case: Composition Chapter 16 Presenting the Case: Delivery Chapter 17 Evaluating the Debate 314 300

280

Chapter 18 Academic Debate Formats and CrossExamination 332 Chapter 19 Applied Parliamentary Debate 356


Contents

PREFACE

xi

Chapter 1

Critical Thinking 9 11

1

I. Debate 6 II. Individual Decisions III. Group Discussion IV. Persuasion 12 V. Propaganda 13

VI. Coercion 14 VII. Combination of Methods VIII. Ethical Decision Making Exercises 17

15 16

Chapter 2 Applied and Academic Debate I. Applied Debate 20 II. Academic Debate 24 III. Ethical Standards for Debate Exercises Chapter 3 41 Stating the Controversy 45 43 38

19

I. Defining the Controversy

II. Phrasing the Debate Proposition 45 III. Presumption and Burden of Proof 48

vi

CONTENTS

vii

IV. Types of Debate Propositions Exercises Chapter 4 58

55

Analyzing the Controversy 61

60

I. The Importance of Defining Terms II. Methods of Defining Terms 63 III....
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