In modern world tourism has become a huge industry with the increased number of tourists each year. There are some tourism attractions in every country and with proper maintenance and planning these tourism attractions can earn a healthy amount of revenue each year. People are becoming more adventurous and started exploring the globe more than before. This is a huge opportunity for the tourism industry to flourish. Destination management is now a major concern for many countries having tourism attractions and for this the number of tourists is increasing every year. As the destinations are becoming popular, the management of these destinations are also becoming crucial as newer opportunities and threats are emerging. Long term planning and monitoring regarding all the features of tourism destination is barely important to grow the business. Every business or industry has to face some challenges and threats. Tourism is not an exception. These problems or crisis may be both man made and natural. Some of these crisis related to tourism are; environmental crisis, political crisis, economical crisis, terrorism, social crisis and so many. When a crisis turns into an uncontrollable situation and when the bad impact of it is massive, it can be termed as “disaster”. To secure the flawless operation of tourism business any unpleasant event or disaster must be fought well by the destination managers. And to ensure this the destinations must be prepared. Lots of theoretical models and illustrations are available done by different tourism researchers to combat the tourism disasters successfully. The main goal of this piece of writing is to find out the efficiency of the existing models in tourism crisis management. With the help of a case study the application and efficiency of theoretical model will be analysed. The case study which is being used here is on earthquake in the central region of Turkey (1999). The main objective of the study is to focus on how Turkish tourism industry managed the earthquake which was a disaster for Turkish tourism industry. Faulkner’s (2001) disaster management model would be used here to analyse the situation.
Definition of Crisis and Disaster
The crisis and disasters are now taking place more often than ever before. These disasters are also affecting the tourism attractions. In some cases tourism destinations are even more badly affected by any kind of crisis either national or global crisis. The bad impact of crisis on tourism destinations may be both direct and indirect. It can be made clear with the help of an example. If the crisis is economical the number of tourists will be decrease. On the other hand if the crisis is natural the infrastructure of the destination can be damaged. The nature of tourism crisis being faced by different tourism destinations during their life cycle are not always same (Faulkner and Russell, 2000) but the thing is all about the preparation of the destinations to fight the tourism threats (Kash and Darling, 1998). All the tourism destinations must have appropriate preparation and planning to prevent or fight any type of crisis and disaster otherwise the crisis can leave its devastating effect on the destinations easily. A tourism crisis can destroy its image if the destination management team fails to manage the crisis in a positive manner. Sometimes the damages occur in a tourism destination may be very hard to restore. As a definition of crisis, Selbst (1978) said:
‘‘any action or failure to act that interferes with an organisation’s ongoing functions, the acceptable attainment of its objectives, its viability or survival, or that has a detrimental personal effect as perceived by the majority of its employees, clients or constituents.’’ (Faulkner, 2001, p.136) Any type of crisis or disaster is always unwanted, unpleasant and sometimes surprising for the tourism destinations (Glaesser, 2006). From the point of view of tourism crisis can be termed as an action...