COUN 646: Psychopathology and Counseling
Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed personality disorders with debilitating implications for individuals diagnosed; yet there is limited research regarding the etiology and genetic and environmental vulnerability factors available. The paper will provide a brief synopsis of PPD as well as evaluating the effects of genetics and environmental factors. Differential diagnosis of related disorders and efficacious treatment planning will be reviewed. The author will provide her personal Christian worldview perspective and considerations for further research will be offered. The paper will close with final remarks from the writer.
Keywords: personality, paranoid personality disorder, diagnosis, vulnerability factors
TABLE OF CONTENTS
An Overview of Paranoid Personality Disorder5
Schizoid Personality Disorder12
Schizotypal Personality Disorder13
Effects of Vulnerability Factors on Paranoid Personality Disorder Introduction
Imagine the number of different individuals encountered in one’s lifetime; thenceforth, consider the heterogeneous personality traits of each. Some individuals may be recalled because of an out-going, vibrant, laid-back, happy go lucky personality style and another may be notably remembered because of exhibiting awkward temperaments and unusual dispositions of paranoia and obsessive suspiciousness. For instance, examine the case of a wife that constantly checks her husband’s cell phone, questions him about his whereabouts, and calls him at work to make sure he is actually there. For the outsider(s) looking inward, this may appear completely abnormal until it becomes evident that the husband has been unfaithful or committed an infidelity. Once the circumstances have been evaluated this behavior may be viewed as normal and the wife might be justified in her behavior. Carroll (2009) suggests that “suspiciousness may be adaptive in certain environments, and determining how much interpersonal trust is appropriate in a given situation may indeed be a ‘vexing judgmental dilemma” (p. 41). Next, imagine if a wife were to display these behaviors in absence of any known betrayal or infidelity but she believes that when her spouse states that he has to work late, he is in fact being deceitful because he is having an affair. She is disinclined to share her feelings with anyone about her husband because she thinks that the information will be spitefully used against her later. Because of her distrust, she believes he is trying to purposely harm her emotionally and physically and she is often hostile and argumentative with him. When reviewing the aforementioned scenarios, one can appreciate the great degree of deviation in the personalities, behaviors, and beliefs of the individuals. Although further assessment would be needed to determine if the wife in the second story is suffering from paranoid personality disorder, it is gathered that the pervasive patterns are abnormal. Therefore, on the surface descriptively differentiating adaptive and maladaptive personalities may appear to be easy, from a deeper analysis one must recognize that the subjectivity and complexity of personality and personality disorders provides for a dubious and daunting task of diagnosing and treatment planning. In 2007, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) revealed that approximately 9.1% of the adult population in the United States struggled with a Personality Disorder (PD) and according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition text revision (DSM-IV-TR) the...