Corporate Carbon Audit

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 Carbon Footprint Concepts  Why and What  Carbon Measurement Standards and Procedures  Emission Scopes and Conversion Factors  Assignment


 Carbon Footprint Concepts  Why and What  Carbon Measurement Standards and Procedures  Emission Scopes and Conversion Factors  Assignment


Carbon footprint is a “measure of the impact human Carbon Footprint activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of green house gases produced, measured in unit of carbon dioxide”

Six Kyoto Gases
Symbol CO2 CH4 N2O HFCs Name Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide Hydrofluorocarbons Common Sources Fossil fuel combustion, forest clearing, cement production, etc. Landfills, production and distribution of natural gas & petroleum, fermentation from the digestive system of livestock, rice cultivation, fossil fuel combustion, etc. Fossil fuel combustion, fertilizers, nylon production, manure, etc. Refrigeration gases, aluminum smelting, semiconductor manufacturing, etc. Aluminum production, semiconductor industry, etc. Electrical transmissions and distribution systems, circuit breakers, magnesium production, etc.




Sulfur Hexafluoride


Global Warming Potential
 GWP is a measure of how much a given mass of GHG is estimated to contribute to global warming  It is a relative scale which compares the gas in question to that of the same mass of CO2 (whose GWP is by convention equal to 1)  GWP is a factor of  Radiative efficiency (heat-absorbing ability) of each gas relative to that of CO2  Decay rate of each gas (the amount removed from the atmosphere over a given number of years) relative to that of CO2


Global Warming Potential
Gas CO2 CH4 N2O HCFC-22 HFC-134a PFC-14 SF6

GWP-100 yr time horizon SAR 1995 1 21 310 1500 1300 6500 23900 22200 TAR 2001 1 23 296 1700 1300 4AR 2007 1 25 298 1810 1430 7390 22800

SAR – IPCC Second Assessment Report: Climate Change 1995 TAR – IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001 4AR – IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007


Carbon Footprint- CO2-e
 CO2-e – Carbon dioxide equivalence
 Unit for comparing the radiative forcing of a GHG to CO2

 For GHGs other than CO2
= Mass emitted × GWP (100) of substance

 For fossil fuel/power consumption (activity data, AD)
= Unit of consumption × emission factor (EF)


Some Carbon Emissions by Perspective

In one year a computer and monitor left on all the time requires the energy produced from burning 500kg of coal and produces more that 1 tonne of CO2-e. It is estimated that the total equivalent carbon emissions from an average hotel in Hong Kong equate to over 1,000 tonnes of carbon per year

Every tonne of paper waste that ends up in landfill produces 4.8 tonnes of CO2-e in HK; Each ton of recycled paper saves: 17 trees or 4000kWh


One tonne of CO2-e
 Electricity
– HKE: 1,250 kWh – CLP: 2000 kWh

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Driving: 600 litre gasoline Taxi: 8,264 km (~ HK$ 47K) MTR: 128,205 km (~ HK$ 87K) Paper waste: 208 kg Beef: 37.5 kg Chicken: 357 kg Vegetables: 20 tonnes Trees: 44 trees 9

Hong Kong’s Carbon Footprint
 Hong Kong’s annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is 42 million tonnes in 2005  42 million tonnes in 2008 Electricity generation (67%) Transport (18%) Waste (5%) Others (10%)

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Carbon Intensity
 Carbon intensity is carbon footprint per unit of output or measures  The output can be economic activity measured as gross domestic product (GDP)  Country's carbon intensity: CF/GDP  Corporate carbon intensity: CF/staff no. CF/revenue; CF/products no. CF/CFA, etc.


Per Capita Carbon Emissions


 China - vows to reduce carbon intensity, the amount of CO2 emitted per unit of GDP, by 40-45% from 2005 levels by 2020.  This is ambitious - more ambitious than many observers had expected. ...
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