Control of the Cholera Pandemic

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John Snow
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Name of Model: Control of Cholera Pandemic
Area of Use: Population and Migration
Person who developed model/theory: John Snow- 1813-1858. He was an English physician, and the father of epidemiology. Premise: Dr. John Snow mapped out the Soho District and used symbols to mark people with cholera. He saw that people around the water pump were more infected with the disease, and so he made it impossible to get water from the pump which decreased the amount of cases of cholera. People started getting better; there weren’t as many cases of cholera. Function: Dr. Snow used a “P” to mark the water pumps that people in the Soho District got their water from. He also marked each infected person that had cholera with a charted dot map. Strengths: This showed how many people got cholera because of water. Weaknesses: This isn’t accurate because not everyone would have said if they had cholera or not. So it wouldn’t be accurate. Effectiveness in field in past and today: it was effective in the past, but is not used today.

Ernest Burgess

Name of Model: Concentric Zone Model
Area of Use: Urbanization
Person who developed model/theory: Ernest Watson Burgess 1886 – 1966, he was born in Tisbury, Ontario. He was educated at Kingfisher College in Oklahoma. Burgess was hired as an urban sociologist at the University of Chicago. Burgess also served as the 24th President of the American Sociological Association. Premise: In the center, zone 1, which is subdivided into several sub districts (retail, theater, financial, ect.). The zone of transition, zone 2, is characterized by residential deterioration by business and light manufacturing. Zone 3 is an area of closely spaced adequate homes occupied by the blue-collar labor force. Zone 4 consists of middle-class residents, and zone 5 is the suburban area. As the city grew, inner zones fulfilled on outer ones, so that the functions overtook zone 2 and the problem areas of zone 2 affected the inner areas of zone 3.  Function: Burgess’s model divides the city into 5 different concentric zones, shown by their function. As the city got larger, land was changed into zones around the outer edges of the city, and the concentric zone model emerged. Strengths: This showed the different zones throughout the cities. Weaknesses: The zones somewhat overtook each other so they aren’t useable. Effectiveness in field in past and present: We use it in the past and today.

Homer Hoyt
Name of Model/theory: The Sector Theory
Area of Use: Urban Development
Person who developed model/theory: Homer Hoyt -1895–1984 was a land economist, a real estate appraiser, and a real estate consultant. In his life, he conducted path-breaking research on land economics. His sector model of land use remains one of his most popular contributions to urban society. Premise: This theory states that zones put a lot of time into particular activities such as industry, retailing, working-class residence, and upper class residence, that is a basic wedge shape in the model and that they follow outward from a central business area. Function: Hoyt proved that the main idea of the distribution was that the upper-class, to whom residency needs, actually exercised a powerful influence on the location of unwanted neighbors. Strengths: This can still be applied to many cities, especially in Great Britain. Weaknesses: This theory is based from the early 20th century and didn’t make any improvement with the advancements that we have. Effectiveness on field in past and present: it was effective when the advancements were the same, but now it is not effect because the world has advanced so much.

Nicholas Spykman
Name of Model/theory: Rimland Theory
Area of Use: Political
Person who developed model/theory:
Premise: Whoever controls the Rimland rules Eurasia; whoever rules Eurasia controls the destinies of our world. The Rimland Theory is basically a revised version of the Heartland, if that...
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