Fiedler’s Contingency Model:
Fred E. Fiedler was one of the first leadership researchers to acknowledge that effective leadership is dependent on the characteristics of the leader and the situation. The contingency model helps to explain why a manager may be an effective leader in one situation and ineffective in another. The contingency model also shows which managers are likely to be most effective in what situations. It is said by Fiedler, that personal characteristics can influence leader effectiveness. Leader style is used to refer to a manager’s characteristic approach to leadership. There are two leader styles, to include: relationship-oriented and task-oriented leaders. Relationship oriented leaders are concerned with developing good relationships with their subordinates and being liked by them. Relationship oriented leaders focus on having high-quality interpersonal relationships with subordinates. A task oriented leader’s primary concern is to ensure that subordinates perform at a high level. A task oriented leader has a focus on how productive a subordinate’s job performance is in relation to their task accomplishment. According to Fiedler, there are three styles of leadership in a situational characteristic. These styles include: leader/member relations, task structure, and position power. Leader/member is when subordinates trust and are loyal to their leaders. Task structure is when the subordinate has a clear understanding of the job assignment. Position power is the amount of legitimate reward and coercive power a leader has by virtue of his or her position in an organization. (George & Jones, 2011) Fred Fiedler started his work on the Contingency Model in 1951. The first presentation of the model was in 1963 and it was reviewed and revised in 1974 and 1978. The work of Fiedler has been dedicated to examining the individual's characteristics (to include: trait, intelligence, and experience) and the situation. Therefore, the model incorporates...
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