Biodiversity also known as biological diversity is the existence of a wide variety of species (species diversity) or other taxa of plants, animals, and micro organisms in a natural community or habitat, or of communities within a particular environment (ecological diversity) or of a genetic variation within a specie (genetic diversity). (Oxford dictionary of biology). The root of concern for conserving biodiversity are increased loss of species, increased rates of deforestation and soil erosion, shifting of global climate due to human activities and the reason for conservation of biodiversity will be discussed in details with respect to its aesthetic value, medicinal importance and its ecological value. The concept of biodiversity is important in building awareness, knowledge, information, ethics, and other complex mixture of agriculture, protected areas, etc. Figure 1 shows how these fit into the society together to achieve a common objective which is the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biological resources, and equitable sharing of benefits.
Loss of biodiversity
The causes of the recent loss of biodiversity are degradation, destruction and conversion of ecosystems which results in the loss of species. Pollution, over exploitation, habitat disturbances and the discovery of exotic species has increased the loss of species in the ecosystem. Also, some pressures from humans has led to the depletion of genetic variability which in turn has resulted in the vulnerability of species, inbreeding problems and the inability to adapt to environmental changes. Habitats of the rainforest are known to have a diversity of rich species and more than half of the total species on earth are found here. This is threatened by the continuous destruction of habitats which was brought about by cutting down of forests for humans needs. For instance, trees are used in making timber and fuel while woods are used for agricultural purposes....