Conservation of Biodiversity
One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the conservation of biodiversity. Many factors threaten the world's biological heritage. The challenge is for nations, government agencies, organisations and individuals to protect and enhance biological diversity, while continuing to meet people's needs for natural resources. Biodiversity is the existence of a large number of different kinds of animals and plants which make a balanced environment. Biodiversity is the result of 3.5 billion years of evolution. Man is always dependent on the biodiversity for numerous reasons. However during the last century, decreases in biodiversity have been increasingly observed. Therefore it is necessary to conserve our biodiversity before it is gone. Conservation of biodiversity has to be undertaken on a global scale. Efforts have to be made to conserve biodiversity by conserving plants and wildlife. There are two main ways to conserve biodiversity. These are termed ex situ and in situ. Ex situ conservation involves conservation activities especially of endangered species outside their natural habitat. It is done through establishment of zoos, botanical gardens, genetic resource centres and cultural collection. In situ conservation is the conservation of species in their natural habitat. In situ conservation maintains not only the genetic diversity of species, but also the evolutionary adaptations that enable them to adapt continually to shifting environmental conditions. In situ conservation measures involve designating specific areas as protected sites. This is done through establishment of protected areas such as national parks, bird sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, natural reserves, reserves and protected forests and cultural landscapes etc. Although, India is a home to more than 89,000 species of animals and 47,000 species of plants, 1,300 plant species are endangered and 20 species are extinct and many more animal species are...
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