CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE
Congestive cardiac failure is defined as “the state in which the heart is unable to pump blood at a rate adequate for supplying the requirements of the tissues with function parameters remaining within normal limits usually accompanied by effort intolerance, fluid retention and reduced longevity” (Denolin, 1983, p. 445). Congestive cardiac failure or heart failure continues to be a major public health issue worldwide. This paper is a case study report about C.B, a 60 year old woman of East Indian descent. She has a medical history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, asthma and myocardial infarction ×4 and is currently diagnosed with “acute exacerbation of congestive cardiac failure”. According to (Woods, et. Al, 2010), heart failure the pathphysiologic state in which an abnormality of cardiac function is responsible for inadequate systemic function. Further research revealed that it is not considered as a disease but as a combination of signs and symptoms of a group of diseases. The heart comprises of two atria (right atrium and left atrium) that make up the upper chambers of the heart, and two ventricles (left ventricle and right ventricle) that make up the lower chambers of the heart. The ventricles are muscular chambers that pump blood when the muscles contract. The contraction of the ventricle muscles is called systole. Congestive cardiac failure may be classified as left sided (or left ventricular), right sided (or right ventricular) or biventricular (affecting both left and right ventricles). In addition, congestive cardiac failure can be classified into four functional states. * Class I (Mild) – patients with cardiac disease who does not result in limited physical activity * Class II (Mild) – patients with cardiac disease resulting in insignificant limited physical activity and are comfortable at rest * Class III (Mild) – patients with cardiac disease resulting in considerable limited physical activity and are...
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