EDITORIAL BOARD Editor in Chief Roger R. Flynn University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Advisory Editors Ida M. Flynn University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Ann McIver McHoes Carlow College, Pittsburgh PA EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF Kathleen J. Edgar, Senior Editor Shawn Beall, Cindy Clendenon, Alja Collar, Debra M. Kirby, Anjanelle M. Klisz, Mark F. Mikula, Charles B. Montney, Kate Millson, Nicole Watkins Contributing Editors Michelle DiMercurio, Senior Art Director Rita Wimberley, Buyer William Arthur Atkins, Philip Koth, Proofreaders Ellen Davenport, Indexer Stephen Murray, Glossary Compiler Maria L. Franklin, Permissions Manager Lori Hines, Permissions Assistant Deanna Raso, Photo Researcher Barbara J. Yarrow, Manager, Imaging and Multimedia Content Robyn V. Young, Project Manager, Imaging and Multimedia Content Leitha Etheridge-Sims, Mary K. Grimes, David G. Oblender, Image Catalogers Lezlie Light, Imaging Coordinator Randy Bassett, Imaging Supervisor Robert Duncan, Senior Imaging Specialist Luke Rademacher, Imaging Specialist GGS Information Services, Composition Consulting School Douglas Middle School, Box Elder, South Dakota Teacher: Kelly Lane Macmillan Reference USA Frank Menchaca, Vice President Hélène G. Potter, Editor in Chief ii
Software and Hardware
Roger R. Flynn, Editor in Chief
Copyright © 2002 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher. Macmillan Reference USA 300 Park Avenue South New York, NY 10010 Gale Group 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Computer sciences / Roger R. Flynn, editor in chief. p. cm. Includes bibiographical references and index. ISBN 0-02-865566-4 (set: hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865567-2 (Volume 1: Foundations: Ideas and People : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865568-0 (Volume 2: Software and Hardware : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865569-9 (Volume 3: Social Applications : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865570-2 (Volume 4: Electronic Universe : alk. paper) 1. Computer science. I. Flynn, Roger R., 1939QA76 .C572 2002 004—dc21 2002000754
Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
The science of computing has come a long way since the late 1930s, when John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry began work on the first electronic digital computer. One marvels to see how the science has advanced from the days of Charles Babbage, who developed the Difference Engine in the 1820s, and, later proposed the Analytical Engine. Computer science was and continues to be an intriguing field filled with interesting stories, colorful personalities, and incredible innovations. Ever since their invention, computers have had a profound impact on society and the ways in which humans conduct business and financial matters, fight wars and maintain peace, provide goods and services, predict events (e.g., earthquakes, the weather, global warming), monitor security and safety, and a host of other applications too numerous to mention. Plus, the personal computer revolution, beginning in the 1980s, has brought computers into many homes and schools. This has helped students find new ways to prepare reports, conduct research, and study using computerized methods. In the new millennium, the role that computers play in society continues to grow.
The World of Computer Science
In preparing this encyclopedia, I came across references to the early work on the IBM System/360 series of computers, which featured capacities of 65,000 to 16 million bytes (4 byte-words) of main storage and disk storage of several million to tens or hundreds of million bytes. At the same time, I opened the...