Composting of Efb+Pome+Boiler Ash+Additive with Assumptions

Topics: Composting, Palm oil, Compost Pages: 13 (3195 words) Published: April 18, 2013
QUESTION:
1. Determine physicochemical parameters for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), fresh empty fruit bunch(EFB), and palm oil boiler ash. State the reference(s). 2. Determine the mass of each components at initial raw compost mixture that consist of POME+EFB(300metric ton)+ash+additive. Stat your answer in metric ton and consider any nutrient losses. The final compost should have: C/N<30, N=1.8%, P=0.5%, K=3.4%, Mg=0.8%

Given:
a) Composting time: 45 days
b) Composting system: Windrow (2m x 9m x 30m), turning every 10 days c) Physicochemical for additive is shown below:
pH = 6.7
N = 3.02%
P = 13.92%
K = 7.88%
Mg = 0.45%

References
Richard, T. & Trautmann, N. (1996) Cornell Composting: Science and Engineering. http://compost.css.cornell.edu/calc/cn_ratio.html

Solution:
1.
a) Physicochemical of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)
Component| Fresh Raw POME| POME Anaerobic Sludge|
Moisture Content (%)| 98.21 | 94.03|
pH| 4.33| 7.41|
C (%)| 36.36| 37.51|
N (%)| 2.71| 4.68|
C/N| 13.4| 8.0|
Oil and Grease (mg L-1)| 2151.0| 183.0|
COD (mg/L-1)| 113191.0| 40563.0|
BOD (mg/L-1)| 35580.0| 15180.0|
Volatile suspended solid (mg/L-1)| 14530.0| 21110.0|
Total suspended solids (mg/L-1)| 18980.0| 34720.0|
Total solid (mg/L-1)| 41022.0| 55884.0|
Cellulose (%)| 38.36| 10.45|
Hemicellulose (%)| 23.21| 6.01|
Lignin (%)| 26.72| 48.13|
P (%)| 1.01| 1.25|
K (%)| 2.49| 5.16|
Ca (%)| 1.56| 2.55|
S (%)| 0.57| 1.21|
Fe (%)| 1.03| 1.09|
Mg (%)| 1.21| 1.41|
Zn (mg kg-1)| 118.82| 151.0|
Mn (mg kg-1)| 339.0| 495.24|
Cu (mg kg-1)| 73.24| 174.9|
B (mg kg-1)| 95.59| 65.0|
Mo (mg kg-1)| n.d| 5.0|
Cd (mg kg-1)| 1.2| n.d|
Ni (mg kg-1)| n.d| 14.0|
Reference: (Baharuddin et al., 2010)

Component| POME anaerobic sludge|
Moisture Content (%)| 95.4 |
pH| 7.4|
C (%)| 32.5|
N (%)| 3.9|
C/N| 8.3|
Oil and Grease (mg L-1)| 183|
COD (mg/L-1)| 40.563|
BOD (mg/L-1)| 15100|
Total solid (mg/L-1)| 55884.0|
P (%)| 1.2|
K (%)| 2.0|
Ca (%)| 1.6|
S (%)| 4.6|
Fe (%)| 1.9|
Mg (%)| 0.9|
Zn (ppm)| 158.0|
Mn (ppm)| 550.0|
Cu (ppm)| 243.0|
B (ppm)| 180.0|
Cr (ppm)| 23.0|
Reference: (Ahmad et al., 2011)
b) Physicochemical of Fresh Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)
Component| Value|
Carbon (%)| 40.7|
Nitrogen (%)| 0.3|
Hydrogen (%)| 5.4|
Sulphur (%)| 1.1|
Oxygen (%)| 47.0|
HHV (MJ/kg dry)| 2.00|
Moisture (%)| 38.4|
SiO2 (%)| 12.12|
Al2O3 (%)| 0.26|
CaO (%)| 9.65|
MgO (%)| 1.90|
Na2O (%)| 0.09|
K2O (%)| 55.48|
SO3 (%)| 1.66|
Cl (%)| 6.84|
P2O5 (%)| 3.58|
Moisture Content (%)| 7.95|
Reference: (Madhiyanon et al., 2012)
Component| Value|
Moisture Content (%)| 24.0 |
pH| 6.7|
C (%)| 53.0|
N (%)| 0.9|
C/N| 58.9|
Cellulose (%)| 52.5|
Hemicellulose (%)| 28.8|
Lignin (%)| 17.1|
P (%)| 0.6|
K (%)| 2.4|
Ca (%)| 1.0|
S (%)| 1.1|
Fe (%)| 1.0|
Mg (%)| 0.6|
Zn (ppm)| 17.0|
Mn (ppm)| 230.0|
Cu (ppm)| 14.0|
Cd (ppm)| 1.0|
Cr (ppm)| 9.0|
Pb (ppm)| 1.0|
Reference: (Ahmad et al., 2011)

Component| Value (wt%)|
Carbon| 49.07|
Nitrogen| 0.7|
Hydrogen| 6.48|
Sulphur| < 0.10|
Oxygen| 38.29|
K| 2.00|
Moisture Content| 7.95|
HHV (MJ/kg dry)| 19.35|
Cellulose (%)| 59.7|
Hemicellulose (%)| 22.1|
Lignin (%)| 18.1|
Reference: (Abdullah et al., 2008)
Component| Value (wt%)|
Carbon| 43.52|
Nitrogen| 1.20|
Hydrogen| 5.72|
Sulphur| 0.66|
Oxygen| 48.90|
Moisture Content| 7.80|
HHV (MJ/kg dry)| 15.22|

Reference: (Lahijani et al., 2011)
c) Physicochemical of Palm Oil Boiler Ash
Component| Value (wt%)|
C| 18.26|
O| 44.6|
Mg| 1.65|
Al| 0.86|
Si| 17.64|
P| 0.84|
K| 4.17|
Ca| 18.05|
Fe...

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