Vanessa Gale
Formal Lab:
Evaluation of the Gas Law Constant
Dr. Monzyk
Due 06/25/2012

Purpose:

The purpose of this lab is to evaluate the gas law constant. The ideal gas law is represented as PV=nRT, where R represents the gas law constant. To determine R, we must find the other parameters, P, V, n and T through the experiment.

Equipment and Materials:

Large beaker
Ring stand
Clamp
Copper wire
100 mL eudiometer tube
Magnesium (Mg) ribbon
M6 H2SO4 (Sulfuric Acid)
Wash bottle filled with distilled water

Procedure:

First I cut a piece of Mg ribbon and used steel wool to rub off the MgO (magnesium oxide). I then used the scale to determine when I had approximately 0.0440g of Mg. I then wrapped the Mg with copper wire so that none was showing, but left a tail of copper wire. In the fume hood, I added 8 mL of M6 H2SO4 to the eudiometer tube. I used the wash bottle to carefully and completely fill the tube with water, being sure not to mix the water with the sulfuric acid. Then I placed the copper covered Mg into the tube and left the tail end hanging over the edge. I placed the rubber stopper into the end. I held my finger over the hole in the stopper, gently flipped over the tube and place the stopped end into the water. I removed my fingers and then clamped the tube into place. When the Mg stopped producing bubbles, I gently tapped the tube on the bottom of the beaker to ensure no bubbles were trapped and read the level of the liquid. I recorded my results. The same procedure was repeated in three additional trials.

Data:
| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 4|
Mass of Mg, g| 0.0446| 0.0448| 0.0434| 0.0454|
Number of Moles of Mg| 0.001834| 0.001842| 0.001785| 0.001867| Initial Eudiometer Reading, mL| 0| 0| 0| 0|
Final Eudiometer Reading, mL| 45.4| 47.9| 42.5| 43.6|
Volume of Gas, L| 0.0454| 0.0479| 0.0425| 0.0436|
Barometric Pressure, mmHg| 761.238| 761.238| 761.238| 761.238|...

...CHEMISTRY 130 Laboratory Section: ________
Page 1
Name ______________________
Evaluation of the GasLawConstant
Objectives In this experiment, we will determine the Ideal GasConstant, R, which relates the number of moles of gas present to its volume, pressure and absolute temperature. Background To see how "R" was derived, we must look at the proportionalities defined by the other fundamental gaslaws. For example, Charles' Law showed us that the volume of a gas sample is proportional to its absolute temperature at constant pressure. Thus V ∝ T abs . In addition, Boyle's Law states that the volume of a gas sample is proportional to the inverse of 1 its pressure at constant temperature. That is, V ∝ P . If we include the fact that Avogadro's Law states in effect that the volume of a gas sample is proportional to the number of moles of gas, n, at constant temperature and pressure we have V∝n . Combining these three proportionalities into one produces the following: V∝
nT P
where T is the absolute temperature. Note that any proportionality can be made into an equality if we derive the proper 'proportionality constant'. In this case we will use the symbol "R" to represent this...

...Title: PROP0332 Evaluation of the GasLawConstant
Abstract: The result of the change in volume was approximately 22 CC or 0.00084 mol. This translates into the average for the R constant being 83.8L*atm/K*mol. The four determinations ensured that the results were accurate because more than one trial helps somewhat prevent error. Approximately 0.20g of the Mg ribbon was used for these determinations.
Introduction:
1. Theory
If the temperature of a gas sample was held constant, its volume varied inversely with its pressure. The Kelvin scale is known as the absolute scale. Charles’ law states that volume of a given mass varies directly with its absolute temperature if the pressure remains constant. Ideal gases are those whose behavior is exactly described by Boyle’s and Charles’ laws. Avagadro’s principle says that the volume of a gas sample at a given temperature and pressure is proportional to the mass or number of moles of the gas.
2. Reference citations
Grover W. Everett, East Carolina University, Signature Lab Series, Prop 0332, p. 141
3. Important Equations
V α 1/P
V=K1/P
V=K2*T
V α T
P1V1T1P2VxT1P2V2T2
Vx=V1(P1/P2)
V2=Vx(T2/T1)
V2=V1(P1*T1/P2*T2)
P2*V2/T2=P1*V1/T1
PV/T=K
PV=nRT
Mg(s)+2HCl(aq)MgCl2(aq)+H2(g)
PV/nT=R
PV/nT=atmosphere-millileter/mole-degree=R...

...GASLAWS
GROUP 1
Sheena Mae Agustin
Hans Alcantara
Renzo Bren Ado
Miguel Afable
Ron J Advincula
De La Salle University - Dasmariñas
Dasmariñas, Cavite Philippines
ABSTRACT
Gases behave in a similar way over a wide variety of conditions because to a good approximationthey all have molecules which are widely spaced, and nowadays the equation of state for an ideal gas isderived from kinetic theory. The combinedgaslaw or general gas equation is formed by the combination of the three laws, and shows the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature for a fixed mass of gas. The GasLaws that have been subject to testing were Combined GasLaw and Graham’s Law.
INTRODUCTION
The combined gaslaws a gaslaw which combines Charles's law, Boyle's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. These laws each relate one thermodynamic variable to another mathematically whileholding everything else constant. Charles's law states that volume and temperature are directlyproportional to each other as long as pressure is held constant. Boyle's law asserts that pressure andvolume are inversely proportional to each other...

...GasLaws
Name
Institution
The 3 GasLaws
Introduction
The three gaslaws include: Gay-Lussac’s law, Boyle’s law and Charles’ law. When combined with Avogadro’s law the three laws can be generalized by the ideal gaslaw. Gases possess observable properties which include, mass, pressure (P), thermodynamic temperature (T) and volume (V). These properties are related to each other and the state of a gas is determined by their values. The three laws are derived from these properties.
Discussion
Boyle’s gaslaw
Boyle’s law relates the volume and pressure of an ideal gas. It states that when the temperature of a given mass of a confined gas is held constant, its pressure and volume are inversely proportional. In other words, the product of absolute pressure and volume is nearly constant and exactly a constant for an ideal gas (Stoker, 2013).
The mathematical equation for Boyle's law is:
PV = k
Where:
P denotes the pressure of the system.
V denotes the volume of the gas.
K is a constant value representative of the pressure and volume of the system.
Explanation
Provided a fixed quantity of...

...Gaslaws have an impact on several aspects of our lives. The S.T.E.M I decided to explore deals a great deal in thermodynamics in the gaslaw I chose chemistry. First off I have to explain what is the broad practice of chemistry. Chemistry, a branch of physical science, is the study of the composition, properties and behavior of matter. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. Chemistry is also concerned with the interactions between atoms and various forms of energy Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it bridges other natural sciences like physics, geology and biology with each other. Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics. The origin of the word chemistry has been much disputed. The origin of chemistry can be traced to certain practices, known as alchemy, The scientific discipline that intersects the areas of chemistry and physic is commonly known as physical chemistry, and it is in that area that a thorough study of thermodynamics takes place. Physics concerns itself heavily with the mechanics of events in nature. Certainly changes in energy however measured, whether it be heat, light, work are clearly physical events that also have a chemical nature to them. Thermodynamics is the study of energy changes accompanying physical and chemical changes. From temperature, meaning...

...
Bolye’s Law Problems
Example: If I have 5.6 liters of gas in a piston at a pressure of 1.5 atm and compress the gas until its volume is 4.8 L, what will the new pressure inside the piston be?
• Read the problem and determine what is given and what is unknown?
• Decide which law to use.
• Substitute the values (given numbers) from the problem into the equation
Given: P1 = 1.5 atm Unknown or find: P2 = ? = X
V1 = 5.6 L
V2 = 4.8 L
Note: Since this problem involves two pressures and two volumes we will use Boyle’s law equation to solve it:
P1V1 = P2V2
(1.5) (5.6) = X (4.8)
Now solve for X
8.4 = 4.8 X
4.8 4.8
1.75 atm = X = P2 The new pressure inside the piston is 1.75 atm.
1. I have added 15 L of air to a balloon at sea level (1.0 atm). If I take the balloon with me to Denver, where the air pressure is 0.85 atm, what will the new volume of the balloon be?
2. I’ve got a car with an internal volume of 12,000 L. If I drive my car into the river and it implodes, what will be the volume of the gas when the pressure goes from 1.0 atm to 1.4 atm?
3. 1.0 L of a gas at standard temperature and standard pressure is compressed to 473 mL. What is the new...

...Boyle’s Law - Solutions
1) If I have 5.6 liters of gas in a piston at a pressure of 1.5 atm and compress the gas until its volume is 4.8 L, what will the new pressure inside the piston be?
P1V1 = P2V2
(1.5 atm)(5.6 L) = (x)(4.8 L)
x = 1.8 atm
2) I have added 15 L of air to a balloon at sea level (1.0 atm). If I take the balloon with me to Denver, where the air pressure is 0.85 atm, what will the new volume of the balloon be?
P1V1 = P2V2
(1.0 atm)(15 L) = (0.85 atm)(x)
x = 18 L
3) I’ve got a car with an internal volume of 12,000 L. If I drive my car into the river and it implodes, what will be the volume of the gas when the pressure goes from 1.0 atm to 1.4 atm?
P1V1 = P2V2
(1.0 atm)(12,000 L) = (1.4 atm)(x)
x = 8600 L
Charles’s Law – Solutions
1) If I have 45 liters of helium in a balloon at 250 C and increase the temperature of the balloon to 550 C, what will the new volume of the balloon be?
[pic]
2) Calcium carbonate decomposes at 12000 C to form carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. If 25 liters of carbon dioxide are collected at 12000 C, what will the volume of this gas be after it cools to 250 C?
[pic]
3) I have 130 liters of gas in a piston at a temperature of 2500 C. If I cool the gas until the volume decreases to 85 liters, what will temperature of the gas be?
[pic]...

...Experiment 3: Evaluation of GasConstant
Purpose:
The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate the ideal gaslaw under ordinary conditions. In this lab, the variables in the ideal gaslaw are known or can be found aside from the constant R. Thus, the R values can be found and relatively determine the relevancy of the ideal gaslaw to the lab conditions. The ideal gaslaw was tested using the reaction:
Mg (s) + 2HCl2 (aq) H2 (g)
Procedure:
1. Ribbons of magnesium (5) were cut to the approximate length of the instructor’s example and were weighed separately on scale #1.
2. HCl provided by the instructor was added to a eudiometer tube (8mL). The rest of the tube was filled with water. One of the magnesium tapes was wrapped around a piece of copper wire in the opening of the tube.
3. The eudiometer tube was then inverted over and into a 450 mL beaker with water. The initial volume was recorded.
4. While the reaction occurred, the temperature was taken at 1 minute intervals for 3 minutes.
5. After the reaction occurred, the height difference from the solution within the eudiometer tube and the top of the liquid volume in the beaker was recorded. The final volume was also recorded.
Summary Table:
Mean of R= .0737
Standard Deviation= .0298
Relative Standard Deviation=...

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