This mode has existed since time immemorial. It is the transportation of people and freight(goods) using human- muscle power. It is generally in the form of walking, running and swimming. Arguably, modern technology has enhanced this mode and can now be seen in the form of bicycles, hand carts and watercraft rowing to mention but a few. In its most important advantage, the human powered mode is useful in underdeveloped or inaccessible regions. It is also cost serving and can be a leisure with benefits of physical exercise to the persons’ body and how it is almost friendly to the environment- no emissions that affect the ozone layer! Its demerits are quite loud! It makes transportation very slow and the transportation of heavy goods is not permissible. On the other hand it is not suitable for long distance and time consuming. The weather also impacts heavily on this mode because it is affected by the environment!
This mode has also existed since time immemorial. It is the use of animals for the movement of people and freight(goods). Animals are superior to people in terms of power, speed, endurance and carrying capacity. Humans may otherwise ride some of the animals directly or use them as pack animals(animals for carrying goods) or harness them alone or in teams to pull laden sleds or wheeled crafts. Examples are donkeys cart, horses, camels to mention but a few. Advantages of this mode is mainly in rural or less developed areas where movement of animals is not a messy. The other advantage is that, not only does it require low infrastructure, it also is economical in the sense that it does not need fuel. It is also an obviously arguable fact that it is environmental friendly. Chances of accidents are very less when used in the less developed regions. The demerits linger in that it is slow, and is not suitable for heavy loads over long distances. It is quite affected by the environment and has a bad impact on productivity in terms of time. Obviously it is not suitable for cities as it can enhance congestion ,can even cause accidents and sanity problems because of animal waste! Road Transportation
Road infrastructures are large consumers of space with the lowest level of physical constraints among transportation modes. However, physiographical constraints are significant in road construction with substantial additional costs to overcome features such as rivers or rugged terrain. Road transportation has an average operational flexibility as vehicles can serve several purposes but are rarely able to move outside roads. Road transport systems have high maintenance costs, both for the vehicles and infrastructures. They are mainly linked to light industries where rapid movements of freight in small batches are the norm. Yet, with containerisation, road transportation has become a crucial link in freight distribution. A point to note is that freight and passenger vehicles still share the roads. The growth of freight traffic...