Comparative Analysis of Hypoglycemic Activity of Camias (Averrhoa Bilimbi L.), Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) and Macopa (Syzygium Samarangense) Leaf Extracts in Glucose-Treated Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

Topics: Blood sugar, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus Pages: 39 (12713 words) Published: November 3, 2012

In the present time, the rate of proliferation of diabetic people is continuously and rapidly increasing. Further studies show that the number of diabetes cases worldwide has doubled since 1980 and is now at startling 350 million diabetics. (Laino, 2011). Diabetes is a lifelong disease in which the level of glucose in the blood is abnormally high. Connected to this is a condition called hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (sugar). High blood glucose occurs when the body can’t produce sufficient amount of insulin. And also, it can happen when the body can’t use insulin properly. (American Diabetes Association, 1995). In addition, Hyperglycemia is the major cause of complications with diabetes.  If left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2012) Due to the alarming incidences of hyperglycemia and adverse side effects of synthetic medicines, researchers sought for natural, indigenous and inexpensive herbal alternatives and botanical sources (Venkatesh et al., 2003). In Britain,10 percent of the 150,000 diabetics who had been switched from the traditional animal-derived insulin to synthetic human insulin have suffered hyperglycemic episodes, coma and injuries. (Brown, 1999) In archaic journals, 800 plants were reported to have anti-diabetes properties while survey says that more than 1200 plants were used for hypoglycemic activity. (Kesari et al., 2007) Moreover, studies suggest that Banaba and Ampalaya can be alternatives to these synthetic medicines. (Klein et al., 2007) Like the said herbal alternatives, there are many plants that have the potential to decrease the production of blood glucose such as Guava, Macopa and Camias. Guava (Psidium guajava) is a small tree with a height of approximately 33 feet (10 inches) with spreading branches. Also it has smooth, thin, copper-colored bark that flakes off, showing the greenish layer beneath. The fruit exuding a strong, sweet, musky odor when ripe, may be round, ovoid, or pear-shaped, 2 to 4 in (5-10 cm) long, with 4 or 5 protruding floral remnants (sepals) at the apex; and thin, light-yellow skin, frequently blushed with pink. (Philippine Medical Plants, 2012) Furthermore, guava can be used for gastroenteritis, controlling blood pressure and cholesterol, can be source of Vitamin C, reduces the risk of acquiring cancer, an alternative pain reliever, can lower blood sugar, and other uses. (Sarvani, 2007). According to a research conducted by Yoriko Deguchi and Kouji Miyazaki, guava leaves extract has the potential to reduce blood sugar. However, little is known regarding the therapeutic activity of the extract in human clinical trials as well as its underlying therapeutic mechanisms and safety. In Japan, Guava Leaf Tea (Bansoureicha®, Yakult Honsha, Tokyo, Japan) containing the aqueous leaf extract from guava has been approved as one of the Foods for Specified Health Uses and is now commercially available. This review describes the active component of the aqueous guava leaf extract and its inhibition of alpha-glucosidase enzymes in vitro, safety of the extract and Guava Leaf Tea, reduction of postprandial blood glucose elevation, and improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in murine models and several clinical trials. It is suggested that the chronic suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation is important in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that Guava Leaf Tea is considered useful as an aliment therapy for chronic treatment. (Philippine Medical Plants, 2012) Macopa (Syzygium samarangense) Makopa is a tree reaching a height of 10 meters. Leaves are...
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