Clonning

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American University in Bulgaria|
The History and Ethics of Cloning|
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Cloning is production of offspring identical to its parents. To understand the idea of what is cloning, it is essential to know basic steps of this process. Scientists define seven major steps of cloning. Despite the fact that the science of cloning has become so popular respectively recently, the first experiments date back to 1885. After having created a successful clone of the first mammal, scientists started to think about human cloning. However, many negative issues and controversial arguments arose among society concerning the cloning of human. That is why the goverments of most countries had to ban it or impose a moratorium on it.| Lizaveta Dydyshka SCI - 150a|

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Contents

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
What is Cloning?2
Major findings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Steps of Cloning2
History of Cloning...…3
Is Human Cloning Dangerous? Arguments against It……………………………………………………………..5
Is Human Cloning Banned?...................................................................................................8 Conclusion………………………………… ……………………………………………….…………………………………………………8

Works Cited……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…10

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Introduction
What is Cloning?
At first people considered cloning as a miraculous type of science. However, it has turned out to be a reality and such words like “clone” or “to clone” are often used in biology today. By definition, a clone can be described as a cell or an organism that is identically similar to another cell or organism. For instance, simple bacteria reproduce themselves by replicating their DNA and then splitting in half. The resulting bacteria from this asexual reproduction are counted as clones of each other, because they are genetically alike. In comparison to asexual reproduction, offspring that result from sexual reproduction carry differential genetic information, as the nucleus of an egg cell and the nucleus of a sperm cell carry the mother’s and the father’s DNA respectively. To conclude, cloning is a production of identical offspring that is genetically similar to its parent. (Deborah Barnes, Research in the News)

Major findings
Steps of Cloning
Different scientists define different numbers of steps of cloning; some define four, while others describe the process in five steps. However, if we were to talk about cloning in detail, we would use seven essential steps to explain how to make a clone. These steps are the following: * Firstly, we should have the unfertilized egg. If we are planning to clone a dog, then we need a dog’s one, if it is going to be a clone of a horse, then we need a horse’s egg. * The second step is about removing the nucleus of the egg. For example, some Scottish doctors suck this nucleus out of the egg with a simple pipette. * Thirdly, we need another cell from the organism. Basically, for this purpose we can take any cell from the body, as almost every cell consists of essential chemical instructions needed for creating an organism. * In the fourth step, we insert that single cell from a particular body into the egg. * Step five, which is about the fusion both of the cell and the egg, is an important step in cloning, because it makes the cell’s DNA begin manufacturing of an embryo. * The sixth step is about implanting the egg into the womb of the animal which we are cloning. * Finally, if implantation has been done successfully and the egg divides and develops, then after nine months the seventh step occurs – a clone is born. (Alasdair Palmer 2001)

The History of Cloning
Many people certainly know that in the end of 20th century scientists managed to make a clone of the first mammal – the sheep Dolly. Nevertheless, not many of them...
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