Essay on cloning and ethical issues that immediatly Subject : cloning and ethics come up when talking about it. Completed: 8/11/2012
Numerous articles appeared in the newspapers about one particular sheep, born in 1996. Her name, as you may have figured out, was Dolly. She was special as she was the first sheep to be cloned entirely by humans. The cloning of this sheep raised a lot of questions. The most important ones being “why would we do clone a living animal” and “can we clone humans too”. Of course these questions do not only require a scientific answer, but also an ethical answer as we are talking about living creatures.
First of all: how exactly can you clone living organisms? There are three main types of cloning. DNA cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. DNA cloning or recombinant DNA technology is to transfer one piece of DNA into something that can duplicate himself. Bacterial plasmid, viruses and also yeast chromosomes are used for this as they are able to duplicate easily. The DNA fragment containing the gene which is needed is isolated using enzymes, and after that it will be transferred to the bacterial plasmid using once again enzymes. After that the bacterial plasmid starts multiplying, and the outcome will be one certain fragment. Reproductive cloning was how Dolly came to earth: the nucleus of a donor adult cell is placed in an egg cell without nucleus. This cell will then need chemicals or an electric current to stimulate cell division. If it has indeed started dividing it will need to be placed in a uterus where it continues till the animal gives birth. Therapeutic cloning, sometimes referred to as embryo cloning, is the production of human stem cells for use in research. This isn't used at all to create cloned human beings, it's just for the research because Stem cells are quite important. Stem cells aren't specified yet so they can chance into any kind of cell depending on what scientists...
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