Reading Time: 15 minutes
Suggested Writing Time: 40 minutes
Directions: The following prompt is based on the accompanying eight sources. This question requires you to integrate a variety of sources into a coherent, well-written essay. Refer to the sources to support your position; avoid mere paraphrase or summary. Your argument should be central; the sources should support this argument. Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations. Introduction: Cloning hit the mainstream as a scientific debate when scientists cloned a lamb named Dolly in 1996. Cloning is a process that results in an identical genetic copy of a biological product such as cells, tissues, genes or entire entities. After scientists took cloning beyond the genetic engineering of simple DNA to actual mammals, the controversy grew to new heights. Cloning happens naturally. Plants and bacteria often use asexual reproduction, which tends to produce an exact genetic copy. Twins are another example of natural cloning. Scientists use artificial cloning for use with genes, reproduction and therapy. "Gene cloning produces copies of genes or segments of DNA," according to the National Human Genome Research Institute. "Reproductive cloning produces copies of whole animals. Therapeutic cloning produces embryonic stem cells for experiments aimed at creating tissues to replace injured or diseased tissues." Many argue that cloning can be beneficial in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and science. Others claims that cloning has a direct impact that challenges or runs counter to the moral or religious values of millions of people. Assignment: Read the following sources (including any introductory information) carefully. Then, in an essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources for support, take a position that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that cloning is an ideal alternative to natural reproduction. Refer to the sources as (Source A), (Source B), etc.; titles are included for your convenience.
Source A (Law)
Source B (Poll)
Source C (Cartoon)
Source D (FDA)
Source E (Man-Made)
Source F (Dolly)
Source G (Klinkenborg)
Source H (Human Cloning)
Johnson, Alissa. “Attack of the Clones.” National Conference of State Legislators. April 2003. http://www.ncsl.org/Portals/1/documents/pubs/03SLApr_Cloning.pdf
The following is an excerpt from an article by Alissa Johnson, in which she clarifies the laws on both therapeutic and reproductive cloning.
Although the U.S. House of Representatives passed a measure to ban both therapeutic and reproductive cloning in February, the bill is waiting action in the Senate at press time. Several competing bills that would prohibit all or some forms of human cloning are also pending in Congress. Even so, federal regulations already restrict the activities of federally funded researchers. Former President Bill Clinton established the first federal policy to directly address reproductive and therapeutic cloning with an executive order that prohibited certain activities related to embryonic research, including human cloning, in federally funded projects. And President Bush addressed the nation in August 2001 to announce that researchers could not use federal money to harvest new cells from embryonic stem cells. Studies on cells already generated are permitted. There is no federal law prohibiting reproductive or therapeutic cloning using private money. In a 1993 notice, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it would regulate reproductive cloning. The agency requires researchers to submit an application to conduct studies involving biological products. Former director of the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) at the FDA Kathryn Zoon testified to Congress in 2001: “FDA believes that there are major,...