Climate Change and Its Impact on Agriculture

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Climate Change and its Impact on Agriculture
Climate change is an emerging issue of agricultural production and geographical location of India makes it vulnerable to climate change. For most people, the expression “climate change” means the alteration of the world’s climate that we humans are causing, through fossil fuel burning, clearing forests and other practices that increase the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. However, scientists often use the term for any change in the climate, whether arising naturally or from human causes. According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) climate change is the change that can be attributed “directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “climate change” as “a change in the state of the climate that can be identified ... by changes in the mean and / or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer”. Each of these two definitions is relevant and important to keep in mind. Climate change is basically due to the increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide through anthropogenic activities. These gases trap the sunlight and increase the earth’s overall temperature. The gases responsible for the global warming are known as Greenhouse Gases (GHGs), which are comprised of Carbon Dioxide CO2, Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, Methane CH4, Nitrous Oxide N2O and water vapors. These gases are produced by a number of anthropogenic activities. CO2 is mainly produced during the combustion of wastes, carbon, wood and fossil fuels. Chlorofluorocarbons are used for refrigeration, aerosol propellant and for insulation and it have 10000 to 15000 times greater potential for global warming than carbon di-oxide. Methane is produced during the mining of coal, gas and oil and during their transportation, whereas, Nitrous Oxide is produced during agricultural and industrial activities. Man is responsible for this newly emerging CO2 enriched world because since the pre industrial time CO2 concentration has increased from 280ppm to 380ppm due to deforestation, massive use of fossil fuels etc. Concentration of GHGs as a result of anthropogenic activities is increasing at a rate of 23ppm per decade, which is highest rise since the last 6.5 million years. Percentage contribution of different sectors in the atmospheric concentration of GHGs is from energy sector 63%, agriculture 13%, industry 3%, land use and forestry 18% and waste 3%. Climate change is an externality which is mainly caused by particular economic activities, and the geographical position of many developing countries makes them very much vulnerable to climate change. According to the IPCC prediction, in the absence of any policy to abate the GHGs emission, GHGs would increase from 550ppm to 700ppm at the mid of current century and this level of GHGs would cause to accelerate the temperature from 30C since the pre industrial era to 60C. Earth gains solar energy from sun in the form of sun light and atmosphere, which is composed of different GHGs, hold these energy rays and pass them on to the earth and then let them to go back into GHGs| Atmospheric Concentration (PPM)| Annual increase (%)| Major Source| Carbon-di-oxide (CO2)| 351.3| 0.4| Coal, Oil, Natural gas, Deforestation, Foams, Coolants| Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)| 0.000225| 5.0| Refrigeration and Air Conditioners| Methane (CH4)| 1.675| 1.0| Wetlands, Livestock,|

Nitrous oxide| 0.31| 0.2| Fossil fuels, Deforestation|
the space. So the atmosphere plays a vital role to maintain the earth average temperature at level of 150C.

Biomass Burning & Nitrogenous Fertilizers
N2O
Climate Change &...
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