Climate Change

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Climate change has taken significant changes throughout the years on Earth. These changes have affected the in more than one way. A Simple way to describe Global warming would be to say that it refers to an average increase in the Earth’s temperature and this increase may cause changes in climate. As the Earth warms up it may lead to significant rise in sea levels, chaotic weather patterns, and catastrophic droughts. The issues of climate change around the world are caused by human activities. Hurricanes are a perfect example of direct consequences of global climate change such as hurricane Sandy and hurricane Katrina. These impacts of global warming are not limited to the United States. Also massive earthquake triggered devastating Tsunami, which hit country like Indonesia, India, Thailand, and many other countries in the region. This was due to the increasing temperature of the sea and its ability to maintain the Oceanic crust insulated has already been compromised. The atmosphere is warming on average, but the effects of climate change are being felt locally and can be very different from place to place. Local and regional climate changes include more severe storms, heat waves, precipitation, and droughts. These changes can produce impacts such as changes in agricultural yields, increased flooding, and landslides. An increase in average temperatures will reduce sea ice, because glaciers to recede increase sea level, lower lake level, and decrease snowpack. All of these changes disrupt ecosystems and cause habitats to change which can result in species extinctions, loss of biodiversity, increased disease, and threatened human cultures. There are types of gases including those known as greenhouse gases that surround the atmosphere. Green house gases (GHG) absorb and retain heat from the sun. They regulate the Earth’s climate by holding warmth in an atmospheric blanket around the planet’s surface. Scientists call this phenomenon the greenhouse effect according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature on Earth would be about -2 degrees Fahrenheit instead of the current 57 degrees Fahrenheit. Excess greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, however, can raise global temperatures. In the past 100 years, scientists have detected an increase of 1 degree Fahrenheit in the Earth’s average surface temperature all of this is according to the Environmental Protection Agency (“Climate”). Scientists actively have work to understand past and future climate by using observations and theoretical models. Borehole temperature profiles, ice cores, flora and fauna records, glacial and per glacial processes, stable isotope and other sediment analyses, sea level records serve to provide a climate record that spans the geologic past. More recent data are providing by the instrumental record. Physically based general circulation models are often used in theoretical approaches to match past climate data, make future projections, and link causes and effects in climate change (“Climate”). Climate changes have potentially consequence on our water resource because it does not only affect water resource but also water demand. If a region becomes drier and warmer, the decreased water availability will be exacerbated by an increased water demand. Irrigation is by far the largest use sector; today about 67% of the current global water withdrawal rigation purpose. It is generally expected that irrigated agriculture will have to extend in the future in order to feel the world’s growing population. However, it is not yet known whether there will be enough water available for the necessary extension (Archer). Research has shown that air pollutants from fossil fuel use make clouds reflect more on the sun’s rays back into space. This leads to an effect known as global dimming whereby less heat and energy reaches the earth. The pollutants that lead to global dimming also lead to various human and environmental...
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