Child with Mental Retardation

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PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction
Mental retardation is a condition characterized by limitations in performance that result from significant impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, expressed as abnormal conceptual, social, and adaptive skills that occurs before age 18. Mental retardation can occur in any family and cuts across all racial, educational, social and economic backgrounds. The degree of impairment can be divided into mild (IQ 50- 70), moderate (IQ 35-50), and severe (IQ 20-35). Mental retardation can be caused by any condition which impairs development of the brain before birth, during birth or in the childhood years. For many children, the cause of their mental retardation is not known. Some of the most common known causes of mental retardation like Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, fragile X syndrome, genetic conditions, birth defects, and infections. Still other causes of intellectual disability do not occur until a child is older; these might include serious head injury, stroke, or certain infections. The causes may be heterogeneous such as genetic, metabolic, environmental or infections. The person with mental retardation experiences difficulties in coping with various environments because he or she lacks the mental, emotional and social skills. Teaching Strategies for Mental Retardation are one of the best approaches to use to modify Child Behavior Problems. For mild to severe mentally disabled children use behavioral objectives. Behavior objectives must be stated very specifically and in observable and measurable terms, you need to think about how the behavior will be measured only then you can come up with solutions. Writing effective behavior objective requires a great deal of practice, be prepared to reflect on your objectives and learn from them. You will soon find out what works and what doesn't. It is helpful to break down learning tasks into smaller steps and to introduce each learning task, one step at a time, to avoid overwhelming the student. Once the student has mastered one step, the next step is introduced. This is a progressive, step-wise, learning approach and is characteristic of many learning models. The only difference is the number and size of the sequential steps. The difficulties in cognitive skills of child with Global Developmental Delay: Mental Retardation. Cognitive skills are necessary for analyzing sounds and images, recalling information, making associations between different pieces of information, and maintaining focus on a given task. In order to assist this presentation, an observation about a 16 year and five month old male who has been categorized as having Global Developmental Delay Mental retardation, will be discussed.

Background of the Study
When you talk about people with disabilities the picture that instantly comes in your mind are people with serious physical disabilities. However, the term includes a lot more. According to World Health Organization, this term includes all those who not only suffer physical disability but also disabilities that enforce activity limitations, participation limitations and other forms of impairment disabilities. Personal growth impairments are also considered as disabilities. It is important that you understand all these different aspects in order to know the importance of the situation. The issues related to disability is not merely the fact that the person is suffering from certain restraints in physical or mental or social aspects but it goes beyond this point in concern about the livelihood of the person effected with such disabilities. Governments and global organizations like the WHO are trying to find the solution to help these persons with the proper means of sustaining themselves. Special movements for the people suffering from disabilities have been started to ensure that they are able to get the proper help and support that they deserve. These movements ensure that...
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