Child Sexual abuse. APA format.

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Criminology 175 Outline: Child sexual abuse victims

I. Statement of the Problem

A. Definitions

1. Child sexual abuse victim(s)

Psychological effects

Physical effects

B. Statistics

1. Vulnerability

2. Indicators of child sexual abuse

C. Expert statements

1. Frequency of occurrence

2. Common motives of offenders

II. Review of the Literature

A. History

The rise of public concern

2. Civil lawsuits

B. Key issues

1. What are the effects of child sexual abuse?

2. What to do if you think a child you know has been the victim of sexual abuse.

3. Proving sexual abuse

C. Most recent research

1. Underreported and lightly prosecuted

2. Possible complications

D. Information from the experts

1. Research regarding prevention strategies from experts

2. Protecting children from sexual abuse

III. Summary

A. Discussion of findings

1. About research

2. About programs

B. Society's concern with this crime


A. The problem revisited with opinions

B. Suggestions for possible solutions

1. Programs

2. Policies

3. Laws �



Sexual abuse of children is a harsh fact of life in our society. Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescents uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse includes asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activates, regardless of the outcome, indecent exposure to a child with intent to gratify their own sexual desire or to intimidate or groom the child, physically sexual contact with child or using a child to produce child pornography. A child abuse victim can result in both short - term and long-term harm physically and emotionally. What would you do if you knew a child who became a victim? That's a question everyone should be ready to answer if they want to protect our future generations.


There is no universal definition for CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE VICTIM(S). However, a major characteristic of any abuse is the dominant position of an adult that allows him or her to force or coerce a child into sexual activity. Child sexual abuse may include fondling a child's genitals, masturbation, oral-genital contact, digital penetration, and vaginal and anal intercourse. ("American psychological association," 2011) Other forms of abuse can also occur that are not as easy to detect. These include showing adults' genitals to a child, showing the child pornographic or "dirty" pictures or videotapes, or using the child as a model to make pornographic materials. ("Child advocacy resources")

A victim of child abuse suffers from PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS that have an immediate emotion. These effects of abuse cause isolation, fear and an inability to trust. This can translate into lifelong consequences, including low self-esteem, depression, and relationship difficulties. Researchers have identified links between child abuse and poor mental and emotional health, Cognitive difficulties, and Social difficulties. In one long-term study, 80 percent of young adults who were abused met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder by age 21. Some problems include depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and suicide attempts. Other psychological and emotional effects include panic attacks, attention-deficit/ hyperactive disorder, depression, anger, and posttraumatic stress. (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2008)

PHYSICAL EFFECTS are defined, as immediate physical abuse can be relatively minor, such as bruises or cuts. It can also be very severe such as broken bones, hemorrhage, or even death. Physical effects in some cases can be temporary, however the pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discounted. Several studies have shown adults who experience abuse or neglect during childhood is more likely to suffer from physical ailments such as allergies, arthritis,...
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