Chemical Hazards

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National Disaster Management Guidelines

Chemical Disasters (Industrial)

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National Disaster Management Guidelines

Chemical Disasters (Industrial)

National Disaster Management Authority Government of India

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Member National Disaster Management Authority Government of India

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am thankful to the Core Group Members for their untiring efforts in helping the NDMA in the formulation of the National Guidelines on Chemical Disaster Management. I would like to place on record the significant contribution made by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi and National Safety Council, Mumbai for helping in designing the format of the document and providing lots of technical inputs from time-to-time. The Disaster Management Institute, Bhopal also deserves special recognition for providing inputs related to On-Site and Off-Site emergency plans. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to the representatives of the other central ministries and departments concerned, regulatory agencies, R&D organisations, professionals from scientific and technical institutes/academics, technocrats from leading national institutions and apex industrial associations/consortiums of the corporate sectors for the valuable inputs that helped us in improving the content and presentation of the document. The efforts of Dr. Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Scientist ‘F’ and Additional Director, Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam, and Dr. Raman Chawla, Senior Research Officer, NDMA, in providing knowledge-based technical inputs to the core group, are highly appreciated. Thanks are also due to Mr. Rubaab Sood and the secretarial staff of the NDMA including Mr. Deepak Sharma and Mr. D.K. Ray for their dedicated work during the convening of various workshops, meeting and preparation of the final document. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to General N.C. Vij, PVSM, UYSM, AVSM (Retd), Vice Chairman, NDMA and all Members of the NDMA for their constructive criticism and suggestions that guided us in formulating these guidelines.

New Delhi 30 April 2007

Lt Gen (Dr) JR Bhardwaj PVSM, AVSM, VSM, PHS (Retd) MD DCP PhD FICP FAMS FRC Path (London)

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Contents
Contents Foreword Acknowledgements Abbreviations Executive Summary v ix xi xii xvii

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1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

Introduction
Sources of Chemical Disasters Causative Factors Leading to Chemical Disasters Initiators of Chemical Accidents Process and Safety System Failures Natural Calamities Terrorist Attacks/Sabotage Impact of Chemical Disasters Major Chemical Accidents in India Aims and Objectives of the Guidelines

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1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3

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2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.5 2.5.1

Present Status and Context
Regulatory Framework and Codes of Practises Institutional Framework and Compliance Institutional Framework Compliance Other Technical Activities/Initiatives Initiatives in Installations Initiatives in Storages Initiatives in the Road Transport Sectors Parallel International Efforts International Labour Organization (ILO) Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at the Local Level (APELL) Project United Nations (UN) International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) Recent Major International Developments The UNEP Trans-APELL Programme

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4 4 4 6 7 7 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10

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CONTENTS

2.5.2 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7

Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) Recent National Developments Enactment of the DM Act, 2005 Powers and Functions of the NDMA Genesis of National Disaster Management Guidelines—Chemical Disasters

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3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2...
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