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Chemistry of Spices

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Chemistry of Spices

Edited by

Villupanoor A. Parthasarathy
Indian Institute of Spices Research Calicut, Kerala, India

Bhageerathy Chempakam
Indian Institute of Spices Research Calicut, Kerala, India and

T. John Zachariah
Indian Institute of Spices Research Calicut, Kerala, India

CABI is a trading name of CAB International CABI Head Office Nosworthy Way Wallingford Oxfordshire OX10 8DE UK Tel: +44 (0)1491 832111 Fax: +44 (0)1491 833508 E-mail: Website: CABI North American Office 875 Massachusetts Avenue 7th Floor Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Tel: +1 617 395 4056 Fax: +1 617 354 6875 E-mail:

©CAB International 2008. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owners. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library, London, UK. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Chemistry of spices / [edited by] V.A. Parthasarathy, B. Chempakam, T. John Zachariah. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-84593-405-7 (alk. paper) 1. Spices--Analysis. 2. Spice plants--Composition. I. Parthasarathy, V.A. II. Chempakam, B., Dr. III. Zachariah, T. John. IV. Title. SB305.C44 2008 641.3'383--dc22 2007043551 ISBN-13: 978 1 84593 405 7 Typeset by Spi, Pondicherry, India. Printed and bound in the UK by Biddles Ltd, King’s Lynn.


Contributors Preface 1 Introduction V.A. Parthasarathy, B. Chempakam and T. John Zachariah 2 Black Pepper T. John Zachariah and V.A. Parthasarathy 3 Small Cardamom B. Chempakam and S. Sindhu 4 Large Cardamom B. Chempakam and S. Sindhu 5 Ginger T. John Zachariah 6 Turmeric B. Chempakam and V.A. Parthasarathy 7 Cinnamon and Cassia N.K. Leela 8 Clove N.K. Leela and V.P. Sapna 9 Nutmeg and Mace N.K. Leela 10 Coriander V.A. Parthasarathy and T. John Zachariah 11 Cumin Shamina Azeez 12 Fennel Shamina Azeez

vii ix 1 21 41 59 70 97 124 146 165 190 211 227




13 Fenugreek N.K. Leela and K.M. Shafeekh 14 Paprika and Chilli T. John Zachariah and P. Gobinath 15 Vanilla Shamina Azeez 16 Ajowan T. John Zachariah 17 Star Anise B. Chempakam and S. Balaji 18 Aniseed N.K. Leela and T.M. Vipin 19 Garcinia K.S. Krishnamurthy and V.P. Sapna 20 Tamarind K.S. Krishnamurthy, V.P. Sapna and V.A. Parthasarathy 21 Parsley Shamina Azeez and V.A. Parthasarathy 22 Celery K.S. Krishnamurthy 23 Curry Leaf V.A. Parthasarathy, T. John Zachariah and B. Chempakam 24 Bay Leaf V.A. Parthasarathy, T. John Zachariah and B. Chempakam Index

242 260 287 312 319 331 342 362 376 401 413 426 435


Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut – 673 012, Kerala, India Phone: 0091 – 0495 – 2731410, Fax: 0091 – 0495 – 2730294 E-mail:, Web site: Dr V.A. Parthasarathy, Director E-mail: Division of Crop Production & PHT Dr B. Chempakam, Principal Scientist & Head E-mail: Dr T. John Zachariah, Senior Scientist – Biochemistry E-mail: Dr N.K. Leela, Senior Scientist – Organic Chemistry E-mail: Dr K.S. Krishnamurthy, Senior Scientist – Plant Physiology E-mail: Dr Shamina Azeez, Senior Scientist – Biochemistry E-mail: Gobinath, P. E-mail: Balaji, S. E-mail: Sapna, V.P. E-mail: Shafeekh, K.M. E-mail: Sindhu, S. E-mail: Vipin, T.M. E-mail:


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Spices are woven into the history of nations. The desire to possess and monopolize the spice trade has, in the past, compelled many a navigator to find new routes to...
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