Chapter 8

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In search of political and social order
Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) and his school
Educator and political advisor
Sayings were compiled in the Analects by his disciples
Confucian ideas
Fundamentally moral and ethical in character
Thoroughly practical: how to restore political and social order Concentrated on formation of junzi--"superior individuals"
Edited and compiled the Zhou classics for his disciples to study Key Confucian values
Ren--a sense of humanity, kindness, benevolence
Li--a sense of propriety, courtesy, respect, deference to elders Xiao--filial piety, familial obligation
Cultivate personal morality and junzi for bringing order to China Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.), spokesman for the Confucian school Believed in the goodness of human nature (ren)
Advocated government by benevolence and humanity
Xunzi (298-238 B.C.E.) had a less positive view of human nature Believed that humans selfishly pursue own interests
Preferred harsh social discipline to bring order to society
Advocated moral education and good public behavior
Daoism featured prominent critics of Confucian activism
Preferred philosophical reflection and introspection, a life in harmony with nature Laozi, founder of Daoism, allegedly wrote the Daodejing (Classic of the Way and of Virtue) Zhuangzi (compendium of Daoist philosophy)

The Dao--the way of nature, the way of the cosmos
Elusive concept: an eternal principle governing all the workings of the world Dao is passive and yielding, does nothing yet accomplishes everything Humans should tailor their behavior to the passive and yielding nature of the Dao Ambition and activism had only brought the world to chaos

Doctrine of wuwei: disengagement from worldly affairs, simple life Advocated small, self-sufficient communities
Political implications: served as counterbalance to Confucian activism Legalism
The doctrine of practical and efficient statecraft
No concern with ethics and morality
No concern with the principles...
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