4. How did the rapid industrialization of warfare impact the war? It generated an array of novel weapons, including submarines, tanks, airplanes, poison gas, machine guns, and barbed wire. This new military technology contributed to the staggering casualties of the war, including some 10 million deaths; perhaps twice the number wounded, crippled, or disfigured; and countless women for whom their would be no husbands or children 5. With whom did the Ottoman Empire ally itself in WWI?
Germany. (p. 981)
6. When and why did the United States join the war?
The United States, after initially seeking to avoid involvement in European quarrels, joined the war in 1917 when German submarines threatened American shipping. (p. 981) 7. In what ways did WWI mark new departures for countries around the globe in the history of the 20th century? The authority of governments expanded greatly.
In the European center of the conflict, unprecedented casualties, particularly among the elite and well-educated groups, and the physical destruction, especially in France, led to a widespread disillusionment among intellectuals with their own civilization. From the collapse of the German, Russian, and Austrian empires emerged a new map of Central Europe with an independent Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and other nations. Such new states were based on the principle of “national self-determination.” In Russia, the strains of war triggered a vast revolutionary upheaval that brought the radical Bolsheviks to power in 1917 and took Russia out of the war. Thus was launched world communism.
The Treaty of Versailles, which formally ended the war in 1919, proved in retrospect to have established conditions that generated a second world war only twenty years later. Ottoman authorities massacred or deported an estimated one million Armenians, and established a precedent on which the Nazis later built.
The war also brought a final end to a declining Ottoman Empire, creating the modern map of the Middle East, with the new states of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine. Conflicting promises to both Arabs and Jews regarding Palestine set the stage for an enduring struggle over that ancient and holy land.
Millions of Asian and African men had watched Europeans butcher one another without mercy, had gained new military skills and political awareness, and returned home with less respect for their rulers and with expectations for better treatment as a reward for their service. In East Asia, Japan emerged strengthened from the war, with European support for its claim to take over German territory and privileges in China. That news enraged Chinese nationalists and among a few sparked an interest in Soviet-style communism, for only the new communist rulers of Russia seemed willing to end the imperialist penetration of China. Finally, WWI brought the United States to center stage as a global power. (pp. 982-984) 8. What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Germany lost its colonial empire and 15% of its European territory, was required to pay heavy reparations to the winners, had its military forces severely restricted, and had to accept sole responsibility for the outbreak of the war. (p. 983)
9. What right did women increasingly gain?
The right to vote. (p. 985)
10. What happened on the day that the American Stock Market initially crashed? On October 24, 1929, eleven Wall Street financiers committed suicide, some by jumping out of skyscrapers. Banks closed, and many people lost their life’s savings. Investments dried up, world trade dropped by 62% within a few years, and businesses contracted when they were unable to sell their products. For ordinary people, the worst feature was the loss of work. (p. 985) 11. Explain the continuing spread of the Great Depression from America to Europe. The U.S. had a booming economy during the 1920s. It was physically untouched by the war and...