Challenges of Accademic Research

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Presenter: Dr. Jeremiah Eton
Title of Presentation: Some Challenges of Academic Research. Dr.Eton had defined research as a diligent scholarly investigation and systematic collection of information on a subject to establish principles for the advancement of knowledge. He then talked about the types of Research which are: 1. Quantitative Research

2. Qualitative Research
3. Pragmatic or Mix method
4. Advocacy/ Participatory Research
He went on further to talk about the research techniques which are Scientific and Historical. They both have the same purpose which are used in a logically way to obtain information about a specific subject. Followed by the essential steps in research which are: 1. Formation of Topic

2. Hypothesis (testable)
3. Conceptual Definition and
4. Operational Definition
5. Gathering of data
6. Analyses of data
7. Testing
8. Conclusion: The very last step in the research endeavor is to make the research findings available as useful information to the consumers, either by publishing the work or making it available to the relevant institution/organization. While talking about testing Hypotheses he listed two. They are the Null and Alternative Hypotheses. The null hypothesis (Ho) is the proposition that implies no effect or no relationship between the phenomena. Whereas the alternative hypothesis (H1) is the opposite of the null hypothesis; in plain language terms this is actually the hypothesis you set out to investigate. The hypotheses are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Later on the lecture he talked about the P values, the significance Level (alpha) and the challenges of academic research. The P values or calculated probability is the estimated probability of the rejecting the null hypothesis of s study question. The significance level is the term used to refer a pre-chosen probability and then the term “P Value” is used to indicate a probability that you calculate after a given study. Some...
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