1. Planning:Planning is the process of setting document objectives, analyzing audience needs and responses, and developing a course of action to accomplish the objectives. Effective planning takes time at the beginning of the project, but overall saves a lot of time.
2. Research:Research is the systematic investigation of a subject in order to discover facts, opinions, or beliefs. The amount of research needed for a written assignment depends on the nature of the document and the information available about the subject. While minimal research is usually needed for simple memos or letters, longer, more complex documents may require more.
3. Organization:Organization relates to the decisions writers make based on their communication objectives, audience requirements, and format limitations. These decisions determine the order, in which they present their ideas, and logical connections that exist among these ideas, and the approach they take to present the ideas.
4. Composition:This process involves following your organizational writing plan to produce a rough draft. As this process begins writers make decisions about such matters as tone, style, and level of formality.
5. Design: Design is the process of placing information on a page so that it is easily read. Various design elements help clarify organization, including headings, underlining, and bulleted lists.
6. Revision:This is the final stage of the writing process. It includes five specific steps that transform a rough draft into a finished document. These steps include the following:
Ensure the best words, style, and tone are used.
Check for clarity and conciseness and remove all jargon.
Eliminate all punctuation, grammatical and spelling errors Focus on coherence through the use of effective transitions. Check for factual errors.
The Five Steps in the Writing Process
1. Purpose:You have to understand your aim or intention for writing. You must know if you are writing to inform, to persuade, to describe, to narrate, to summarize, to define, or to compare.
2. Audience:You have to know your audience and how that audience might influence your approach.
3. Stance:Stance refers to the combined effect of voice and tone. Voice is your relationship with the audience and tone is the relationship with your subject.
4. Research:During this step one has to decide if research needs to be conducted or whether your current information is adequate.
5. Design:Design refers to a clear sequence for communicating your information most effectively.
Helping to Achieve the Writing Objective
The thesis is your basic position and is usually conveyed in a single sentence. Every successful paragraph has a clear thesis or claim, a single point or idea that the writer wishes to convey. The thesis statement is usually placed at the end of the opening paragraph. Everything that appears in the introduction must relate directly to the thesis.
The Major Differences between a Formal and an Informal Outline
A formal outline follows prescribed rules concerning content and format in order to show the precise relationship among ideas. The core idea is placed at the top of the outline to guide the documents organization. An informal outline is a more loosely connected organizational device that need not follow the strict structural rules of a formal outline. Still, it lists main and subordinate ideas as well as supporting evidence.
The Benefits Gained from Answering the "Pentad" or the "Journalist's Questions"
It is beneficial to answer the "Journalist's Questions" because they act as guidelines to preparing stories. Answering these six questions helps to analyze information from different perspectives; they can also be used to plan business documents.
How and Why You Analyze Your Audience?
1.Consider the readers knowledge.
2.Consider the readers questions.