1. What two molecules are formed when a phosphate is removed from ATP?
There are three phosphate groups in ATP molecule (Adenosine Triphosphate), when removing one phosphate molecule, ADP molecule is formed (Adenosine Diphosphate).
2. What is the function of ATP? Describe the molecule.
The function of ATP is storing energy within a cell. ATP is adenosine triphosphate, C10H16N5O13P3, a high energy complex, giving the necessary power to push metabolistic reactions in the body. Its composed of adenosine, a ribose sugar, and three phosphates.
3. Describe how ADP is converted into ATP.
By adding one phosphate molecule to ADP, it becomes ATP.
4. Differentiate between oxidation and reduction reactions.
Oxidation is a process, in which the atom or ion is increasing its oxidation sate. This will result in loss of electrons. The species that are being oxidized, are the reduction agents. Reduction is a process, by which the atom or ion is decreasing its oxidation state. This will result in a gain of electrons. Here, the species that are being reduced are the oxidizing agents.
5. Why is an electron transport system important to living organisms?
Because it releases energy from fuel in a slow and controlled fashion.
6. Why are oxidation reactions often associated with the production of ATP?
They release energy, thus helping with the production of ATP.
7. In the reaction ADP + P forms ATP is energy stored or released?
Stored , because with the addition of a Phosphate molecule ATP is formed.
8. The primary source of energy for the cell is
(a) starch (b) cellulose (c) glucose (d) ATP (e) sunlight
9. Why must glycolysis occur before the steps of aerobic respiration can begin?
Glycolysis breaks glucose into two pyruvate molecules, to be broken down in the citric-acid cycle. For this reason, it must occur before the steps of aerobic respiration can begin.
10. What is the purpose of the phosphorylation of glucose in glycolysis?
If the cell needs energy or carbon skeletons for synthesis, then glucose 6-phosphate is targeted for glycolysis. Glucose 6-phosphate is first isomerized to fructose 6-phosphate by phosphoglucose isomerase. This reaction converts glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in preparation for phosphorylation to Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. The addition of the 2nd phosphoryl group to produce Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is an irreversible step, and so is used to irreversibly target the glucose 6-phosphate breakdown to provide energy for ATP production via glycolysis.
11. As glucose is broken down into pyruvate, the hydrogen atoms and their electrons are picked up by (a) NAD (b) NAD+ (c) NADP+ (d) NADP
12. Explain how the Krebs cycle contributes to the production of ATP.
Makes NADH for ETC, and also produces ATP from oxidation
13. Explain how energy is released in useful packets through the ETC.
Energy is released at each cytochrome and, some transport an H+ across the membrane
14. What molecule carries the hydrogen and electrons removed from glucose?
15. What are the waste products of cellular respiration?
CO2 & H2O
16. Where in the cell does the ETC occur?
Matrix of Mitochondria
17. Describe the role of NADH in cells.
The role of NADH is to carry electrons from glycolysis to the Krebs cycle during cellular respiration.
18. Identify the use of each of the reactants in cellular respiration and the source of each the products.
O2 - terminal e acceptor; glucose - source of e; CO2 - produced by Kreb’s; H2O - produced when O2 accepts e
- Photosynthesis Assignment -
1. What is the meaning of the word photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is derived from the Greek word photo, meaning "light," and synthesis, from the Greek work syntithenai, which means "to put together"
2. What are the end products photosynthesis?
3. Which organisms are...