* Cell Fractionation: takes cells apart and separates the major organelles and other subcellular structures from one another. * Tissue cells are the first one to be homogenate or broken apart. * Plasma membranes are broken up so that there internal contents spill out and mix together and this is called homogenate. * Homogenate is in spun in a higher rate of speed in a process called centrifugation. And that speed can vary that why it’s called differential centrifugation. * If we spin the tube 1,000 g we get a pelic rich and nuclei and cell degree but there will still be a liquid on top of it called the supenatin. * 20,000 g – mitochondria rich
* 80,000 g – chromosome rich
* 150,000 g – ribosome rich
* Cell Membrane separates the cell from the outside world. It defines the cell as a small compartment. All cells have a cellular membrane. * All cells have DNA.
* Some cells have a membrane around the DNA that separates the DNA and everything that makes up the stuff in the DNA from the rest of the cell and it is called the nucleus. * Have nucleus are called eukaryotes. No nucleus is called prokaryotes. * Prokaryotes examples are archae and bacteria.
* Eukaryotes tend to be more complex and larger. They include plants, animals, and fungi and other groups. * DNA gets transcribe to mRNA leaves the nucleus and it gets translated into proteins in the ribosomes. * Ribosomes are complexes that are floating around or they can be attached. * Ribosomes are made up or RNA.
* Ribosomal RNA helps the ribosome function as a ribosome and all of that gets made or created in the nucleolus. * Nucleolus is a densely packed of proteins and ribosomal RNA where it is reproduced. It’s not membrane bound. * Endoplasmic Reticulum is viewed as bunch of tunnels. Then they lead to the Golgi bodies. Some ribosomes are attached to the...